Posts tagged with "colorful"

Kusama, NYBG, Cosmic Nature, Vaughn Lowery, 360 Magazine

Yayoi Kusama x New York Botanical Garden

New Work by Celebrated Japanese Artist Yayoi Kusama  The New York Botanical Garden Announces Highlights of 2020 Exhibition

KUSAMA: Cosmic Nature, Featuring New Work by Celebrated Japanese Artist Yayoi Kusama

On view May 9‒November 1, 2020. Tickets go on sale February 26, at nybg.org/kusama 

The New York Botanical Garden (NYBG) has announced highlights of its expansive 2020 exhibition KUSAMA: Cosmic Nature, featuring work by internationally celebrated Japanese artist Yayoi Kusama (b. 1929), including new experiences and immersive installations, four of which will debut at the Botanical Garden. NYBG is the exclusive venue for KUSAMA: Cosmic Nature. On view May 9 through November 1, 2020, the exhibition will be installed in and around the Enid A. Haupt Conservatory, across the Garden’s 250 acres, and in the LuEsther T. Mertz Library Building.

Tickets for the landmark presentation go on sale February 26, 2020, at nybg.org/kusama. Visitors to New York can easily reach the exhibit in 20 minutes from Grand Central Terminal in Midtown via Metro North to the Botanical Garden Station. They can also take advantage of the Exclusive Grand Hyatt New York Hotel & Ticket Package. The property is located next to Grand Central and visitors can book online at grandhyattnewyork.com, using the code NYBG. They’ll receive 10% off the nightly room rate at Grand Hyatt New York, two round-trip Metro-North Railroad tickets to NYBG and two KUSAMA All-Garden Pass tickets.

New Kusama Works Debut

The exhibition reveals Kusama’s lifelong fascination with the natural world beginning in her childhood spent in the greenhouses and fields of her family’s Nakatsutaya seed nursery. Multiple installations will be on view, including her signature mirrored environments and organic forms, colossal polka-dotted sculptures of flora, and mesmerizing paintings of plants and flowers and their diversity of colors and patterns. Several of these works are newly completed and will be shown along with archival works that have never been publicly exhibited, and more that will be on view for the first time in the United States.

Among the new works debuting are: Flower Obsession (2020), Kusama’s first-ever obliteration greenhouse where visitors apply coral flower stickers throughout the interior; Dancing Pumpkin (2020), a monumental, 16-foot-high sculpture presented on the Haupt Conservatory Lawn; Infinity Mirrored Room—Illusion Inside the Heart (2020), an immersive outdoor installation responding to changing light throughout the day and seasons; and, I Want to Fly to the Universe (2020), a brightly colored, 13-foot-high biomorphic form with a yellow face and polka dots.

Complementing the artworks on view, Garden horticulturists will create spectacular in- and outdoor displays through the seasons. Glorious displays of tulips and irises in spring transform into masses of pumpkins and autumnal flowers in fall. Kusama’s plant-inspired polka-dotted sculptures will be installed across the Garden in dialogue with meadow grasses, bellflowers, water lilies, and other plantings. In the Conservatory, stunning floral presentations will bring one of Kusama’s paintings on view in the Library Building to life through a seasonal progression of violas, salvias, zinnias, chrysanthemums, and other colorful annuals. In fall, displays of meticulously trained kiku (Japanese for “chrysanthemum” and one of the country’s most heralded fall-flowering plants) will create a dramatic finale for the exhibition.

Sketchbooks, Paintings & Polka Dots

The Exhibition will include works from throughout Kusama’s prolific career and multifaceted practice. On display in the Mertz Library Building, her sketchbooks from adolescence signal the beginning of Kusama’s connection with the natural world that has inspired her aesthetic and practice across mediums. This early work also portends avant-garde ideas she developed while living in New York between 1958 and 1973, as a contemporary of Joseph Cornell, Eva Hesse, Donald Judd, and Claes Oldenburg, and continues to explore rigorously today. The Library Building presentation will also feature examples of her botanical sketches, paintings, works on paper, biomorphic collages, assemblages, and recent soft sculpture and canvas works depicting flora and their limitless variety of patterns. Life (2015) provides an immersive experience as visitors navigate a circular space enclosing polka-dotted forms with mosaic surfaces. Pumpkins Screaming About Love Beyond Infinity (2017) comprises a mirrored cube reflecting an infinity of polka-dotted pumpkins. It is accompanied by a statement by the artist that reads, in part, “My pumpkins, beloved of all the plants in the world. When I see pumpkins, I cannot efface the joy of them being my everything, nor the awe I hold them in.”

Public Programs   

KUSAMA: Cosmic Nature will be accompanied by a roster of public programs for all ages, including lectures; film screenings of Kusama Infinity (2018) and Kusama’s Self-Obliteration (1967); fun-filled Polka Dot Picnics in spring; and Pumpkin Power Weekends in October with activities amid thousands of pumpkins of myriad shapes and sizes. Artist-designed merchandise will be available for purchase at NYBG Shop and there will be special Kusama- inspired menu items offered in the Hudson Garden Grill and Pine Tree Café. The KUSAMA All-Garden Pass ticket includes access to the LuEsther T. Mertz Library Building, Enid A. Haupt Conservatory, Flower Obsession (2020) obliteration greenhouse, and garden features, including the Rock Garden, Tram Tour, Everett Children’s Adventure Garden, and grounds. The KUSAMA All-Garden Pass + Infinity Mirrored Room ticket includes KUSAMA All-Garden Pass access, plus timed entry to the Infinity Mirrored Room—Illusion Inside the Heart immersive outdoor installation. Tickets go on sale for NYBG Patrons and Members on February 19, 2020, and to the general public on February 26, 2020.

Visit nybg.org/kusama for additional ticketing information and pricing and to sign up for e-mail alerts on the exhibition.  The New York Botanical Garden is a museum of plants located at Bronx River Parkway (Exit 7W) and Fordham Road. It is easy to reach by Metro-North Railroad, bus, or subway. The Garden is open year- round, Tuesday through Sunday and Monday federal holidays, from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. For more information, please call 718.817.8700 or visit nybg.org The New York Botanical Garden, 2900 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York 10458

Paradigm Gallery Presents “Obsolescence”

Paradigm Gallery + Studio (746 S 4th St) is pleased to present Obsolescence, a solo exhibition by Sweden-based artist Ulla-Stina Wikander, open October 25 – November 23, 2019. The artist’s first solo exhibition in the United States, Obsolescence, features new works from Wikander’s well-known series of household objects covered in colorful, vintage embroideries. Obsolescence will have a public opening reception on October 25 from 5:30 – 10:00pm.

Wikander began collecting vintage embroideries 15 years ago in antique stores and flea markets, initially attracted to the intricate designs of needlework textiles. Although Wikander was traditionally trained as a painter and sculptor, the unknown histories of the women who made the embroideries interested her and she began experimenting with her new collection. Wikander’s earliest experimentation with textile began with covering a broken vacuum cleaner she had laying around in her home. Through a meticulous process of deconstruction and reassembly, she transformed the anachronistic tool into something visually absorbing and entirely new, giving the vacuum a new reason to exist. Although not all of the objects Wikander covers are broken, they’re all out-dated. Through Wikander’s process, these retro items are transformed and recycled into fully contemporary sculptures.

On her practice Wikander says, “It is rather new for me to be a part of the textile community because I have always regarded myself as a painter and sculptor. While I do not embroider myself, I am always very meticulous when I choose my patterns.  Embroidery is very hard to find nowadays, so I often travel to small towns in Sweden to find them. I have a big collection with hundreds of embroideries, organized into boxes by motif. I do not know if it is accepted among textile artists, to cut embroideries into pieces, but I think my work is a bit different. I always have a bad feeling that I am destroying a beautiful embroidery that someone else has made, but the recycling of something forgotten also feels current and good”.

The latest artworks included in Wikander’s Obsolescence exhibition are suffused with humor and critical explorations of feminism, domesticity, and upcycling. Her intricate textile constructions are shaped by the forms that lie underneath – including irons, blow dryers, shoes, bags, lamps, books, and phones. Freshly adorned in coverings of flowers, animals, and pastoral scenes, the items transcend their former functionality and are simultaneously revelatory and recognizable. Wikander’s vibrant re-appropriations are evocative formal studies that defy categorization and illicit equal parts dissonance and delight.
About Ulla-Stina Wikander
Ulla-Stina Wikander was born 1957 in Kungälv. She is currently living in Stockholm/Kullavik, Sweden and has been working as an artist since 1986. Wikander has shown extensively around the world in solo and group exhibitions including shows in the United States, Sweden and the UK.
About Paradigm 
Paradigm Gallery + Studio® exhibits contemporary artwork from around the world with a focus on Philadelphia-based artists. Established February 2010, the gallery began as a project between co-founders and curators, Jason Chen and Sara McCorriston, as a space in which to create artwork, to exhibit the work of their peers, and to invite the members of the community to create and collect in a welcoming gallery setting. To this day the gallery still aims to welcome all collectors, from first time to lifelong, and continues to support accessible work that welcomes a wide audience.
Swatch, 360 MAGAZINE, swatch watches, 360

SWATCH BIG BOLD

Inspired by bold ideas, designed for even bolder personalities: We are proud to introduce our brand new Swatch BIG BOLD collection featuring six different watch models. With a kick from urban streetwear, each BIG BOLD is a statement piece boasting a striking 47mm watchcase. This product line calls out for those who are not afraid to put themselves upfront and who are proud to be different. Swatch BIG BOLD is an attitude, a mindset, a way of being in the world. It is a kind of swagger that is irreverent, confident, and entirely unexpected. It longs for those that embrace being noticed.

J Balvin Celebrates Guess Vibras Collection

On Friday, February 8th, celebrities, musicians, social influencers and special guests came together to raise a glass and celebrate ‘GUESS Vibras,’ an exclusive collection designed by global music superstar, J Balvin.

The launch party took place at a massive warehouse in Hollywood ahead of J Balvin’s appearance in the opening segment of Sunday’s Grammy Awards broadcast, where he is also nominated for “Record of the Year” for his collaboration on Cardi B’s “I Like it”. To bring the collection’s vibrant Miami inspirations to life, the space was infused with bright, colorful moments to also reflect his mantra for the the capsule, “nice energy, nice vibras, just smile and that’s what we need, all love.”

Guests enjoyed upbeat party vibes as they were able to dance, visit a custom snow cone station or play ice hockey and basketball shot ball while sipping signature Buchanan’s whisky cocktails. Guests in attendance were also the first to get a sneak peek of J Balvin’s new unreleased Buchanan’s DeLuxe x J Balvin Limited Edition Design bottle inspired by his culture and the good vibras around him.

The 42-piece ‘GUESS Vibras’ collection, which is inspired by Balvin’s chart-topping “VIBRAS” album, includes a selection of ready-to-wear and accessories for both men and women.  Balvin’s personal style and colorful, risk-taking aesthetic is infused within each piece. His hands-on design input makes this collaboration for GUESS another standout, bringing with it global appeal.

Notable guests included: J Balvin, Becky G, Diplo, Ty Dolla $ign, James Kennedy, Raquel Leviss, Nicolai Marciano, Torey Lanez, Amanda Steele, Zion, Jules Goddard, Jesse Baez, Sebastian Lleget, Khalil, Manuela Fernandez, Tainy, Sofia Jamora, Xian Mikol, Amanda Cerny, Scottie Pippen, Kelvin Pena and Nathalie Paris.

BlissLights

Make your home and yard glow with ONE light that creates thousands of sparkles. Light up your surroundings with BlissLights for Fall Parties, Halloween and the Holiday Season.

BlissLights and the BlissBulb can both be used indoor and outdoor! Either twist a BlissBulb into any light socket and watch it light up an area or simply plug in the traditional BlissLights for a starry glow, too!

Creates thousand of pinpoint sparkles with just one light. Great for parties indoor and out, BlissLights and BlissBulbs are sure to wow your guests!

  • Energy efficient and easy to use
  • BlissLight
  • Are great for landscape creating a colorful glow when shining on plants
  • Provide a magical lighting experience whether indoors or outdoors

Whether you are celebrating the fun of fall returning (tailgating parties?!?!) or gearing up for the holiday season, BlissLights and BlissBulbs are an easy and innovative way to light up your home!

BlissBulbs are $27.99
BlissLights are $59.99

Learn more on blisslights.com

American Apparel Fall 2018 Collection

American Apparel announces the debut of its Fall 2018 Collection. With a curated selection of brand new arrivals and returning iconic favorites, the collection includes an array of denim, tees, leggings, skirts, hoodies, and outerwear in a wide range of colors and prints, available exclusively at AmericanApparel.com.

Khairan Majid, American Apparel’s head of merchandising, says the collection “offers an inclusive and refreshing take on fashion basics with longevity. We wanted to break down barriers with gender-neutral silhouettes and a wider size range. The warm, neutral color palette and beautiful luxe fabrics elevate this range, while still keeping the price point accessible.”

The season’s offerings include the anticipated return of the Riding Pant. This highly-coveted style is a high-waist silhouette with the perfect amount of stretch, now with an updated waistband and improved fit. Available in Black, Navy, Silver Birch, and Lieutenant, the Riding Pant retails at $68.00 with sizing from XS to XXL.

Another returning favorite for fall is the bestselling Tennis Skirt, an American Apparel icon and back-to-school essential. This pleated skirt is rendered in lightweight Gabardine polyester, with a wide range of colorways including classic plaid, retailing at $48.00.

The season welcomes the arrival of American Apparel’s first-ever outerwear collection, beginning with a lightweight, year-round Trench Coat – the brand’s interpretation of the classic English silhouette. The Trench Coat is available in Black, Vintage Khaki, navy, Lieutenant, Black/Navy, and Lieutenant/Mauve, with sizes ranging from XS to XXL, retailing at $98.00. Also on the outerwear docket: a Bomber Jacket, with reversible construction for a modern update, retailing at $118.00 in Black/Navy and Lieutenant/Mauve. Rounding out the outerwear highlights are the slick Duckie Puffer and Duckie Raincoat, available in Black, Freesia, Mauve, and Palace Blue from XXS to XXL (priced from $88.00 to $98.00). Polar Fleece also makes an appearance, offering superior comfort and next-level softness, with a Pant and a Quarter Zip pullover, available in Black and Palace Blue with contrasting trim, from XS to XXL, retailing at $46.00 and $48.00.

American Apparel’s Fall 2018 collection also launches a new corduroy collection: 100% Cotton styles that are soft to the touch, incredibly comfortable, and vintage-inspired. Corduroy styles include a Zip Skirt, a Skirt Overall, a Letterman Jacket, and a versatile Shacket, available in Lieutenant, Hot Sauce, Dark Honey, and Navy. Corduroy pieces retail from $58.00 to $88.00, with sizes ranging from XS to XL.

Texture plays a key role this season, as American Apparel expands its Thick Rib collection. Thick Rib is a medium- weight cotton-poly blend designed to atter and shape the body, as evidenced by the new Soccer Jersey, Bodysuit, Crewneck Dress, Midi Tube Dress, Crop Turtleneck, Bralette, and Flare Pant. Thick Rib colorways are Black, Star White, Lavender, Freesia, and Maroon; sizing runs from XS to XL and styles are retailed from $28.00 to $44.00.

Denim plays a key role this fall, with a Denim Pocket Skirt ($58.00) in XS to XL; a Button Flare Jean in Vintage Blue ($68.00) in sizes 24 to 32; a Crop Pencil Jean ($68.00) in sizes 24 to 32; and a new men’s fit: the Straight Jean, made with 14-ounce denim for an authentic vintage feel. The Straight Jean is available in a Dark Wash and Medium Wash, retailing at $68.00 from size 30 to 34.

And in classic American Apparel tradition, fall includes a wide variety of premium basics, from iconic tees, tanks, and pullovers to hoodies, bodysuits, shorts, and much more. Mix-and-match foundational pieces for everyday wear and easy layering – for workouts, weekends, and everything in between. Adds Majid: “We believe in individuality and self- expression, and I think this collection embodies both.”

ABOUT AMERICAN APPAREL

Established in 1989, American Apparel is an iconic Los Angeles fashion basics brand known for premium styles that are timeless, sexy, fun, and colorful. American Apparel’s mission to empower all people is reflected in its ethical, sweatshop-free manufacturing, as well as its bold branding – a celebration of diversity, inclusivity, equality, and body positivity.

Gildan Activewear acquired the American Apparel brand in February 2017. As part of Gildan’s family of brands, American Apparel is now a member of one of the world’s largest and most responsible manufacturing networks. American Apparel is sold online globally. For more information, please visit www.americanapparel.com.

Tumbler and Tipsy

WHAT:

Michael Kuluva And Tumbler And Tipsy Debuted Its 2019 Spring / Summer Collection With Celebrities, Influencers And Royal Family Members As Noticeable Models

WHEN:

Tuesday, September 11th 2018

WHO:

Michael Kuluva, Amanda Lepore, Olympian Mirai Nagasu, Sumer Rayne, Portuguese entrepreneur Betty Grafstein, Gustavo Rocha, Tulio Rocha, Alex Mapeli, Savannah Kennick (“Arrested Development”), Xuitcasecity (Recording Artists), Jose Castelo Branco, Skye Tunes, Broderick Hunter, D’Andra Simmons (“The Real Housewives of Dallas”) Jennifer Lynn DeCllis (Miss New Jersey) and more.

Last week in New York, Michael Kuluva, international designer and creator of the Tumbler and Tipsy fashion line, displayed for many, his new 2019 Spring / Summer collection with a full runway show at Style360 New York Fashion Week. Returning this year for his 8th consecutive year, Michael’s collection was one that incorporated both inspiration from street artists and the colorful and exciting motif that has always been true to the Tumbler and Tipsy brand.

Michael displayed his collection to a full house with the assistance of close celebrity friends and associates including musical act Xuitcasecity, transgender icon and international model Amanda Lepore, Mirai Nagasu (Olympian Figure Skater and US Figure Staking Champion), Dalilah Muhammad (2016 Olympic Gold Medalist) as well as international Brazilian influencers Alex Mapeli, Gustavo Rocha and Tulio Rocha (14 Million followers on Instagram combined).

Celebrity guests who were in attendance include Savannah Kennick (“Arrested Development”) Skye Tunes, Broderick Hunter, D’Andra Simmons (“The Real Housewives of Dallas”) Jennifer Lynn DeCllis (Miss New Jersey) and more.

In addition to the street style collaborations, Michael Kuluva designed a special line with CLIQ Jewelry. n 2016 and in collaboration with CreakyJoints®, the digital, patient-driven arthritis community, Michael spoke out about his experience with Rheumatoid Arthritis and has now prepared a special accessory line for Tumbler and Tipsy consisting of jewelry with CLIQ technology. CLIQ Jewelry, a Philadelphia-based jewelry manufacturer, understands that traditional rings must be large enough to pass over the knuckle, causing them to twist, turn and slip off. Their CLIQ technology allows rings to open and close around the base of the finger to fit perfectly and comfortably.

Image credits:

@reginalynnvisuals and @premium_paris

About Tumbler and Tipsy

Anchored by the creative mind and brilliant talents of professional figure skater and fashion designer, Michael Kuluva of Tumbler and Tipsy is not only reworking, redefining and revamping the world of fashion, but is taking it over by storm one sequin at a time. This sexy yet stylish brand, which is produced in Los Angeles, CA, is a colorful collection that is distinctive but never repetitive, chic and classy while being comfortable and versatile. Tumbler and Tipsy is not just a line of clothing, it’s a collection of art, it’s an embodiment of chic fashion in the modern world, and it’s a representation of a lifestyle: fun, bold, luxurious and daring.

Designer to Watch: Pierre Garroudi

London Fashion Week 5519 saw the arrival of Pierre Garroudi’s Spectacular Fashion Show: a high-octacaine, glamorous, and unique mardi gras of style, creativity, and fun.

On Sunday the 16th of September at 9 PM, The Strand Palace Hotel played host to Garroudi’s riot of colour and exuberance, seeing his vision come to life on the catwalk. Distinctiveness made up the foundation of this show with a diverse cast of models, each dressed and styles uniquely, shunning the industry standard of uniformity.
“Outrageousness is in, get ready and dress up!” is the way designer Pierre Garroudi explained his show made up of 50 looks in total. Key looks from the show included a baby pink, lace, “show girl” outfit, complete with tulle boa, with the model using a children’s doll to cover her modesty, a ringmaster-esque outfit which saw hot-pants teamed with a copped-striped jacket and a show stopping head piece topped with a golden deer to DEMAND attention.

Other notable outfits included a cutesy ‘holiday’ look comprised of a ditsy floral mini-dress with peach sequin detailing matched with an oversized straw sunhat and completed with a pair of sky-high studded stiletto Mary-Janes. Perhaps one of the most eccentric of al the looks was dominated by a hat made from a child’s doll towering on the model’s head. This was matched with a  shoe necklace and belts tied around her ankles, making for a truly eclectric outfit which left Garroudi’s audience curious about his inspiration as well as desperate for an encore of his ‘circus of style.’

Each outfit was styled with one of Garroudi’s famous leather handbags, an accessory the designer is well known and loved for. Pink, blue and gold acted as the main color pallet, but certainly didn’t limit his use of other shades. Hair and make-up only added to the beautiful chaos of Garroudi’s fashion performances taking theatrical make-up to new levels , leaving any sign of minimalism truly outside the doors of the hotel.

Want to get to know the designer?

Now based in London, Pierre Garroudi was founded in New York City 1993. Garroudi is formerly known for mastering the techniques of draping and his attention to fabrication, shape, and detail. His design inspirations derived from futuristic elements experimenting with new shapes and fabric manipulations–appealing to those who are interested in the aesthetics of a futuristic world. With 12 collections, Pierre Garroudi has showcased at fashion weeks in New York, Paris, and London. His international experience enabled him to become more creative and original.

Tennessee Williams Paintings

Citizen of World III, by Tennessee Williams (1970s), oil on canvas board. On loan from David Wolkowsky. The young man depicted in this painting is symbolic of Williams’ acceptance bout becoming a target due to his sexuality.

INTIMATE PAINTINGS BY TENNESSEE WILLIAMS CAPTIVATE AUDIENCES WITH RARE MUSEUM SHOWING.

Tennessee Williams: Playwright and Painter

At the Jewish Museum of Florida-FIU in Miami Beach Final Month – on view now through October 7th.

From the Collection of David Wolkowsky, Scion of Pioneer Jewish Family that Settled Key West in the 1800’s.

Long known as “Mr. Key West,” David Wolkowsky, the famed scion of Florida’s pioneer Jewish family that helped to settle Key West in the 1800s, has loaned his paintings by close friend Tennessee Williams to the Jewish Museum of Florida-FIU their premiere in Miami Beach.

This is one of the few times they have been exhibited outside of Key West. The exhibition Tennessee Williams: Playwright and Painter is an intimate showing of nine exquisitely rare paintings by one of America’s greatest playwrights, created Williams in Key West during the 1970s. One of his closest friends was David Wolkowsky, the Key West developer who owned a private island called Ballast Key (nine miles from Key West), and the Pier House Resort.

Both idyllic locations were the scene of many glamorous gatherings hosted by David and Tennessee, including parties for Hollywood luminaries, heads of state, and society’s crème-de-la-crème.

If these paintings could talk, oh the stories they’d tell…

360, 360 Magazine, Vaughn Lowery, Tennessee Williams, David Wolkowsky

The Blaze of the Moment, by Tennessee Williams (1970s), oil on canvas. On loan from David Wolkowsky.

360, 360 Magazine, Vaughn Lowery, Tennessee Williams, David Wolkowsky

Clockwise: Tennessee Williams in Key West, David Wolkowsky, and Williams painting in Key West.

360, 360 Magazine, Vaughn Lowery, Tennessee Williams, David Wolkowsky

Subject matter includes the writer’s famous cohorts during the 1970s in Key West (including a portrait of a very young Michael York), and personifications from Williams’ own poetry, short stories, and characters from his plays.

Billie Holiday songs played in the background while Williams captured different images on his canvas.

Some of the paintings by Williams feature gay themes. An “open secret” throughout his fabled career, the playwright struggled with societal prejudices from a young age, and the taboos surrounding homosexuality during his lifetime manifested in a number of Williams’ paintings.

His artwork remains widely popular among collectors, most of these sought-after paintings from the last years of his life are in private hands and rarely seen.

These precious gems are the pride of the Key West Art & Historical Society, and the Miami Beach exhibition (on view through October 7 at the Jewish Museum of Florida-FIU) is an uncommon opportunity to see in person how Williams expressed through painting his feelings about sexuality, loneliness and being gay.

360, 360 Magazine, Vaughn Lowery, Tennessee Williams, David Wolkowsky

The Tidings Brought Mary at Far Rockaway, by Tennessee Williams (1975), oil on canvas. On loan from David Wolkowsky.

Most of these sought-after paintings from the last years of his life are in private hands and rarely seen.