Health

Navigating The CBD Marketplace  

CBD has undeniable skyrocketed in popularity over the last couple of years. The passing of the 2018 Farm bill paved the way of fully legal sales of CBD oil derived from industrial hemp. More and more people are experiencing the incredible powers of this natural plant. We are here to help you learn more about CBD and how to navigate the CBD marketplace. How can you tell which brand is the right fit for you? We have you covered from start to finish in this post.

The Basics About CBD 

CBD is one of over 100 different cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant family. Oftentimes consumers relate THC and CBD hand in hand, however this is incorrect. Although they may be part of the same plant family, they have some very different attributes. The most significant being that CBD does not give users an intoxicating “high”. This means that users get to feel the medicinal benefits of CBD without any unwanted intoxicating side effects. 

For those looking for a non-intoxicating experience, we recommend using broad spectrum CBD products. This type of CBD has all of the attributes as full spectrum CBD, just without any THC. Broad spectrum products are also great for users who get drug tested and cannot afford to test positive. 

We understand that the CBD marketplace can be slightly overwhelming with all of the different terms and options. There are currently over 1000 different brands in the industry, so navigating this space is especially tough. The quality of CBD varies greatly as well, quality is often determined by cultivation practices and extraction methods in the CBD industry.  Here are some of the most important factors to keep in mind when shopping in the CBD marketplace. 

Transparency

Trust truly does come from transparency. You want to go with a brand that stand behind their products. Each CBD product you are looking to purchase should have third party laboratory results that are easily accessible and up to date. Our rule of thumb is that the test date should be within 18 months. We also highly suggest staying away from any brand making outrageous claims such as can help cure cancer or arthritis. These companies are going against FDA rules and are simply in the industry for short term monetary gains. 

Made in the USA 

You want to make sure any CBD product you consume is made from hemp grown here in the USA. Hemp grown domestically is subject to rigorous quality control and growing standards. We urge customers to avoid CBD products that use hemp grown overseas in placed like Germany and China which usually do not have as strict guidelines. Plants grown overseas often times use harsh pesticides and heavy metals, that can be detrimental to human health. 

Customer Service 

Many consumers are new to the CBD industry so being able to have access to customer service either via email, chat or phone is a must. Also having customer support can help you deal with any issues that may arise.  

One company that checks off all of these important guidelines is GoGreen Hemp. GoGreen Hemp has been serving THC-Free CBD oil to consumers since 2016. They have full traceability from seed to sale to ensure “what is on the label is what is in the bottle”. All of their plants are grown here in the USA, and have some of the strictest quality control measures in the industry. 

When it comes to first time CBD Oil users GoGreen Hemp recommends either their best-selling CBD Oils or CBD gummies. Below you will find some of these recommendations: 

CBD Gummies – GoGreen Hemp CBD infused gummies come in various forms and strength levels. Their strongest edible is their 25mg Peach Rings which are both delicious and effective. 

CBD Oil Tincture – GoGreen Hemp CBD Oil Tinctures also come in various strength levels and flavors.  

These are just a few of the many THC-free products GoGreen Hemp has to offer. We hope this article has been beneficial and go out there and give CBD a try! 

Ways to cope with multiple sclerosis

Being diagnosed with multiple sclerosis can come as a shock to some but a relief to finally receive answers for others. MS is a chronic disease where the central nervous system is greatly affected. No two people share the exact same symptoms, and these can come and go. Some people have regular attacks, while others constantly suffer for extended periods of time. Continue reading for suggestions on how to cope with specific MS symptoms.

Blurred Vision

Blurred vision can be a very frustrating symptom as it affects most of your day to day living. Resting your eyes can reduce the strain, so ensuring you have regular breaks throughout the day and get plenty of sleep will help. Furthermore, avoiding too much screen time will help. That means that working long hours on a computer is not helpful and staring at your phone should be kept to a minimum.

Loss of balance and poor coordination

Loss of balance and poor coordination can be incredibly debilitating as it stops you from completing many tasks you probably have taken for granted most of your life. Things such as getting out of bed, standing up and climbing stairs all of a sudden seem to become almost impossible and carry the risk of injury. Risk reduction is the major thing to support you in coping with this new-found issue. Avoid carrying out any sort of activity in the dark as that strains your body more and adds further risk. Sensible shoes are a must, so choose ones with a low heel or even walking shoes. Walking with a stick can help too. 

Extreme fatigue

Extreme fatigue will come and go with MS. One day, you may feel able to conquer the world and the next, you may find merely walking to the bathroom a challenge. Prioritizing tasks is really important when it comes to your fatigue. Reserve your energy for the most critical activities. If you do feel able to engage in some of your usual activities, try to make them less strenuous to enable you to complete more. Exercise is still important, so short walks, for example, could be incorporated into your daily routine. If you are able to, take little naps during the day to perk you up somewhat. Limiting your caffeine intake may also help. 

Muscle spasms and spasticity

There are many different types of treatment and medication available to help ease the pain caused by muscle spasms and spasticity. It is always recommended that you speak with your consultant to ensure the best course of action is being followed. Some people also ultimately choose to use cannabis for medicinal purposes from somewhere like The Green Solution, who will be able to give advice on the best product to use. Physiotherapists will be able to offer a program of exercises to ensure you are able to get the most out of your day with posture and seating positions being most important. Movement is essential to ensure you continue to be as flexible as possible.

10 Books Every Nursing Student Should Read

When preparing for a new career, having up to date information is essential.

Whether you’re a seasoned nurse with mastery over a lot of skills or you’re a newbie just embarking on a new career path, these ten books are a must-read for every nurse.

They can play an instrumental role in helping you plan your career.

1. What I Wish I Knew About Nursing: Real Advice From Real Nurses on How Deeply Care for Patients While Still Caring for Yourself

This book details some first-time experiences of past nurses.

These real-life stories are both encouraging and inspirational and will reveal some of the lesser-known facts about the profession you won’t get in any of your classes.

2. The Digital Doctor: Hope, Hype, and Harm at the Dawn of Medicine’s Computer Age

In today’s modern age of digital devices, healthcare has changed in many surprising ways.

Before you start working towards getting your family nurse practitioner degree, it would be worth taking the time to take a look at the faster processes and streamline methods the digital world has to offer. 

3. Cooked: An Inner City Nursing Memoir

In this non-fiction book, the writer gives some details about the life of a nurse working in a clinical facility on the west side of Chicago.

She outlines her experience as a new nurse and how she dealt with the stresses of the industry to give you a rare insider’s view of this industry.

4. Care Coordination: The Game Changer – How Nursing Is Revolutionizing Quality Care

Dr. Gerrie Lamb discusses the importance of coordinating under the Affordable Care Act.

Written from a view of more than 20 of the nation’s foremost healthcare programs and professional institutions giving their perspectives, the reader gets valuable insight into what’s in store for new nurses entering the field.

5. Nursing Leadership From The Outside In

This book offers valuable tidbits of information from those who have to interact with nurses regularly.

Those in other disciplines give you their perspective on nursing leadership. While, as a nurse, you will have to master many skills, the interactions and relationships you develop with those you have to work with will be equally important.

6. Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness

In this book on human physiology, you not only learn about the anatomy of the human body, but you also get an inside look at what happens to physiology when the patient suffers through various ailments.

7. I Wasn’t Strong Like This When I Started Out: True Stories of Becoming a Nurse

Here, you get an inside view from a wide range of first time nursing experiences with frank and honest opinions on why they kept going despite everything.

These stories tell of the ups and downs that all nurses face and help you to find ways to deal with burnout, bureaucratic red tape, and how to balance professionalism with empathy.

8. Every Patient Tells a Story: Medical Mysteries and the Art of Diagnosis

Dr. Sanders of the New York Times and the genius behind the show Diagnosis, has compiled a collection of mysterious cases and what it took to diagnose them.

She explains how getting to the root of a problem doesn’t always involve technical equipment but sometimes only needs to listen to a patient’s details and match them with similar cases around the world.

9. Compilations: A Surgeon’s Notes On An Imperfect Science

Here, you get a close-up view of a surgeon’s experiences and interactions while working.

He points out the advantages and disadvantages he has to deal with, giving you a balanced view of what it’s like for anyone engaged in that particular field.

10. Operation Flight Nurse: Real-Life Medical Emergencies

In emergencies, acute care nursing is usually the first one in the case.

In the examples listed in this book, readers get a close-up view of what happens in real-life medical emergencies.

Dr. Kaniecki details examples from his own experience dealing with critical care conditions and experiences.

No matter where you are in your pursuit of a nursing career, head to the nearest bookstore to get these books to motivate yourself.

They will help you to see exactly what’s happening in your chosen profession, so you can get a real picture of what to expect when starting out.

Tyga, rich the kid, famous dex, 360 MAGAZINE

FAMOUS DEX – WHAT I LIKE

Today, Chicago’s turn-up king Famous Dex releases a new single and music video for his song “What I Like” off of his forthcoming sophomore album. For the single, Dex also taps fellow multi-platinum recording artists Tyga and Rich The Kid — adding layers to the already vibrant track. Rich The Kid provides the infectious hook and Tyga laces the beat with his trademarked flow, making you subconsciously bounce in your seat. On the opposite side of the sonic spectrum from his first single off of the album, “Proofread” ft. Wiz Khalifa which took a more melodic approach, Dex returns back to his signature sound with “What I Like.”

(PHOTO CREDIT: WILLIAM DELATORRE)

How to Choose the Right Form of CBD

CBD has become a favored natural treatment for depression, anxiety, insomnia, pain, and even epilepsy. With numerous health claims, there’s still a lot of exploration into the properties of this natural remedy. 

If you’re interested in trying CBD, the options can be overwhelming. Here’s how you can choose the right form of CBD for you.

Ingested vs. Topical

One of the main questions people ask when trying to choose the right form of CBD for their needs is whether they should ingest it or use it topically. It ultimately depends on why you’re using CBD.

While applying topical CBD will result in a bit of absorption to the bloodstream, it won’t have the same effects as ingesting it. Topical applications are great for spot treating issues, such as skin disorders or fitness-related muscle pain. Ingesting CBD is better for mental health ailments and overall changes to your system.

Tinctures

Tinctures (AKA, CBD oil) are one of the most common ways to buy CBD. In this concoction, the CBD is blended with a carrier oil to be taken orally under the tongue. When you use CBD oil, you can expect quick results. 

Tinctures are versatile and can be used in a variety of ways. Many CBD enthusiasts put a few drops in their morning smoothie or use it to make edibles.

Edibles

Rather than making your own edibles, you can buy the premade variety. These are already measured out into a set dose and easy to transport and consume. Edibles come in many forms, from chocolate bars to baked goods to CBD gummy options for kids with anxiety. 

Capsules

Capsules consist of CBD oil in pill form. Many CBD users love the convenience of the capsules and the slower release and sustained effects than they experience with a tincture.

Vapors

Vaporizing and inhaling a CBD isolate is the fastest acting form of CBD. When vaporizing, an isolate is used, which is a powdered version of pure CBD. Some find the instant effect too powerful and overwhelming for their needs.

Salves

Salves are one of the best topical applications of CBD. You can use a CBD salve as a muscle and joint rub, targeting arthritis flare-ups and post-workout muscle soreness. The anti-inflammatory effects of CBD and targeted approach are what make salves so desirable for some. In many cases, using a salve has no effects on one’s mental state, which is excellent for daily use.

Sprays

Sprays are a less common form of CBD. This form of natural remedy is great for people suffering from psoriasis or eczema. The sprays are gentle and soothing without leaving a residue or requiring any rubbing. Some sprays are even used for cosmetic purposes, to reduce redness and fine lines in beauty products.

Roll-On Oil

When looking for the right CBD product for you, you might stumble across a roll-on applicator. This form of CBD uses a roller ball to apply a CBD tincture blend topically. It can be used to treat skin ailments and for targeting tense muscles without leaving a residue.

Choosing a form of CBD is a decision that comes down to needs and personal preferences. Use this guide to help you determine what application could be right for you.

Vogue MAGAZINE UKRAINE, Ministry of Tomorrow, 360 MAGAZINE

VOGUE UKRAINE – MOT

Vogue Ukraine edition recognizes eco fashion house Ministry of Tomorrow for social and sustainability excellence. 
 
“each stage of production is exemplary”
Tetiana  Solovey 
 
“This is a big win for our tailors in Nairobi. Against all odds, they have shown that given a chance with training and access to basic tools, luxury craftsmanship and sustainability is possible” said Julian Prolman, founder and president of Ministry of Tomorrow.
 
The MOT eco-factory was established directly next to Kibera, the largest slum in Kenya, so that tailors living in Kibera have an opportunity for fair wage jobs, where they can walk a short distance to work and have a chance for a better future. 
 
MOT’s Nairobi facility produces high quality, limited edition, handmade eco-luxury vegan bags with an aim to deliver abundant social and environmental good with each bag sold. 
 
About the Ministry of Tomorrow

The Ministry of Tomorrow, headquartered in Los Angeles, is a for-profit social enterprise that designs and produces high-quality, eco-luxury, vegan accessories and garments and sells directly to consumers at ministryoftomorrow.com
 
The purchase of MOT products enables sustainable development by providing income generating opportunities for people in marginalized places of the world. MOT represents a new frontier in business based on love for all and responsible commerce.

COVID-19 Financial Losses in the Finance Sector

Financial losses from treating COVID-19 patients could devastate the health care sector, experts say. 

The federal government’s Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (CARES) includes hundreds of billions of dollars of funding for the health care sector, but with health care facilities facing unprecedented expenditures, that might not be enough, according to an economics expert at Rice University and a physician at Texas Children’s Hospital.

The cost of caring for COVID-19 patients is predicted to exceed that of typical insurance reimbursement in part because of steps required to prevent the spread of the disease, according to a new blog post by Vivian Ho, the James A. Baker III Institute Chair in Health Economics at Rice, and Dr. Heidi Russell, a physician at Texas Children’s Hospital and associate professor at Baylor College of Medicine.

Legislation adds $100 billion in funds to the Public Health and Social Services Emergency Fund to pay health care providers for expenses or lost revenues attributable to the coronavirus. The funds are only to be used to reimburse for expenses and lost revenues that have not been repaid from other sources. Eligible health care providers comprise for-profit, not-for-profit and public entities as well as Medicare- or Medicaid-enrolled suppliers and providers that deliver diagnoses, testing or care to individuals with possible or actual cases of COVID-19.

Before the outbreak, administrative costs totaled about 8% of all health care spending, the researchers said. “Currently, administrative needs like planning how patients will be tested and where coronavirus patients will be treated as well as allocating limited space and PPE (personal protective equipment) resources are taking up a larger percentage,” they wrote.

Smaller community hospitals, particularly those in rural areas, will be equipped to manage only the mildest cases of COVID-19, the researchers said. Transferring sicker patients to larger centers prepared for the most intensely ill will cause additional strain on already overloaded facilities.

“Patients with underlying illnesses, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart disease, are always more complicated and costlier to care for,” the researchers wrote. “These are the majority of patients being hospitalized with COVID-19.”

Given that hospital and physician expenditures represented $1.9 trillion in spending in 2018, $100 billion may be “woefully inadequate” to compensate health care providers for unreimbursed expenses and lost revenue from the pandemic, the researchers said.

“The COVID-19 pandemic is changing the U.S. health care system,” the researchers concluded. “Our communities, medical providers and health care facilities are responding in an unprecedented manner to prevent the system from collapsing.

“The extraordinarily high health care costs resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic will force a new debate regarding how much health care providers should be reimbursed for their services, why U.S health care costs are so high, and what amount taxpayers are willing to accept in order to maintain national health security.”

Ho is also a professor in the Department of Economics at Rice and a professor in the Department of Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine. Her research examines the effects of economic incentives and regulations on the quality and costs of health care.

Nutrients to Keep You Healthy, While You #StayAtHome

By Susan Bowerman, MS, RD, CSSD, CSOWM, FAND, Sr. Director, Worldwide Nutrition Education and Training, Herbalife Nutrition.
 
While we shelter in place and practice social distancing, many of us may feel wary of the one errand we’ve generally taken for granted– the grocery run.
 
Now, going to the grocery store takes even more planning as the visits are less frequent and options are more limited. Because of these restrictions, it’s easy to make selections that are not the healthiest or to be tempted by high-calorie comfort foods – which often contain too much fat, salt and sugar.
 
Now more than ever, our health should be a top priority. This means making choices to nurture our bodies even more so than we did before COVID-19 impacted our lives. When we make poor choices – such as selecting foods that are high in calories but short on important nutrients – we can be overfed and yet undernourished. Starches and sugars may fill our bellies, but we may be lacking many important nutrients that support overall health, including the health of the immune system. 
 
Nutrients We Need More Of
 
Every few years, the U.S. Department of Agriculture releases data that reveals the state of the American diet. Reports have previously highlighted that many of us are eating plenty, yet lacking certain nutrients from our meals. In particular, we are losing out on what can be found in fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
 
Here are essential nutrients we should pay more attention to:

Fiber – Best known for helping with regularity, high fiber foods are filling and relatively low in calories, making them one of the best allies when it comes to weight management. Certain fibers can also encourage the growth of ‘good’ bacteria in your digestive tract. These beneficial bacteria help support immunity because they serve as an initial line of defense, by crowding out potentially harmful bacteria that might enter the digestive tract. You can get more fiber by including more fruits, vegetables and whole grains in your diet. Use fruits and veggies as snacks, add them to smoothies, sandwiches, salads, soups and stews, and replace refined grains with whole grains.

Magnesium – While it’s not a mineral we typically think about, magnesium contributes to hundreds of bodily functions. Magnesium supports the health of your immune and nervous systems, supports muscle function, and assists your cells in producing energy.  Magnesium is abundant in plant foods like leafy greens, nuts, beans and whole grains, so try snacking on nuts, or toss some beans into a leafy green salad.

Vitamin D – Most people associate calcium with healthy bones, but your bones need Vitamin D too, since it helps your body absorb calcium from your diet.  Vitamin D is also needed for proper muscle function and supports the activity of the immune system. Good dietary sources of vitamin D include eggs and fortified dairy products; a daily walk outside can help too, since your body produces vitamin D when your skin is exposed to sunlight.

Potassium – This mineral supports the function of nerves and muscles and helps regulate blood pressure. Potassium also supports chemical reactions in the body that generate energy from food. One reason many people don’t get enough potassium is because they don’t eat enough fruits and vegetables – the most abundant sources of this important mineral.

Many women also don’t get enough calcium or iron:

Calcium – Calcium is critically important for bone health. Adults need at least 1,000 mg of calcium each day, or the amount found in three glasses of milk. However, many women don’t eat enough dairy products, either because they simply choose to avoid them, are following a vegetarian or vegan diet, or because they are sensitive to lactose. However, calcium can also be obtained from leafy green vegetables and some fortified foods.

Iron – One of iron’s key functions is to support the transport of oxygen to cells and tissues. Women who are premenopausal lose iron routinely with their monthly cycle, which is why it is so important to ensure they have adequate intake. Meat is an excellent source of iron, but those on a plant-based diet can obtain iron from beans and fortified cereals.

 Eating for Wellness
 
The great news is that most of these nutrients can be found in foods that are easy to buy in bulk and maintain a long shelf life until your next essential grocery run.
 
Dry goods like oatmeal, lentils and whole grain pastas and cereals can be great sources of fiber, iron and magnesium, and some cereals are also fortified with Vitamin D. The most important feature is to ensure that you’re buying “whole grain” to get the full benefit, so read labels carefully.
 
Produce that lasts the longest includes apples, citrus, onions, potatoes, broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts and carrots.  And keep in mind that frozen fruits and veggies pack the same nutritional punch as their fresh counterparts, so  stock up on them when you find them.  Fruits and vegetables are great sources of fiber and potassium and a single carrot provides a days’ worth of beta-carotene, which helps protect the health of cells, including cells in the immune system. The body also converts beta-carotene to vitamin A which supports the health of the skin, including the specialized immune cells that reside there. 
 
Finally, fermented foods are also great options that provide beneficial probiotics (the ‘good bacteria’) to the digestive system. Some fermented foods, like tempeh or Greek yogurt, are also excellent sources of plant-based protein (and yogurt is a great source of calcium) and both foods have relatively long shelf lives. Protein supports immune function in a number of ways – among them, the body uses protein to manufacture antibodies, and protein supports the health of the skin and the cells lining the digestive and respiratory tracts. 
 
How Supplementation Can Help
 
A well-balanced diet should provide the essential nutrients to optimize your body’s healthy functions. However, the reality is that even with a balanced diet, no one eats perfectly every day – particularly during these uncertain times when our usual foods may not be as readily available.  That said, this is when the right supplementation can really help. For example, if you can’t get the recommended 25 grams of fiber from fruits, veggies and whole grains, or enough calcium from your usual foods, you can work in fiber or calcium supplements. A daily multi-vitamin or the use of fortified foods –  like cereals or meal replacement shakes or bars – can be consumed to help supply the vitamins and minerals your body needs to perform at its best.
 
During this time of uncertainty and social distancing, use it to your advantage to take care of yourself and your body. Plan out your grocery list and stock your freezer, refrigerator and cupboards with healthy staples. Focus on the important nutrients you may need to increase in your diet and choose foods accordingly. It’s a great time to start getting creative in the kitchen–you may even be surprised at what tasty meals you can put together with what’s already in your pantry!
 

Vaughn Lowery, Alejandra Villagra, illustration, 360 MAGAZINE

Covid-19 Finance Tips

Financial Tips For When You’re Newly Unemployed Or Business Is Slow

Over 3 million people in the U.S. have recently filed unemployment claims as a result of the severe economic impact of the coronavirus.

Some of those suddenly jobless have limited financial resources besides unemployment benefits. Others are fortunate to have emergency savings or investment vehicles they can draw from such as a 401(k). Then there are those who are still working, but feeling the effects of business slowing down.

“Overall, the pandemic has put many people in a weakened financial condition that they didn’t expect,” says Steve Kruman, a financial planner and investment advisor at Bryce Wealth Management. “And there are some lessons in there that could better protect them and their loved ones going forward.”

Kruman has tips to help people weather the financial storm and learn how to plan differently for the future:

Be careful with the 401(k). “When sources of funds are limited, people should withdraw only the amount they need from their 401(k),” Kruman says. “You want to look for other sources that would be accessible without taking on the major tax hit of raiding the 401(k). Home equity loans are great, and they are at rates much lower than the tax rates of the 401(k). Also, cash value life insurance policies are good sources to borrow from as well. For those who lost their job but have adequate reserves, it’s advisable to roll their 401(k) money over to an IRA at the earliest possible opportunity. Employer-sponsored plans have several drawbacks, including limited investment options. By rolling to an IRA, you can select from a much wider investment universe.”

Don’t panic in the stock market. ”Don’t sell now,” Kruman says. “People who are being induced into panic are selling, and somebody else is buying those shares for when prices recover. The stock market always has fluctuations. It comes down to risk tolerance. You have to be prepared for volatility and be diversified.”

Don’t rely on group life insurance anymore. Many people have the majority of their life insurance through their job. But when you lose the job, you lose the life insurance. “You have to replace it with new life insurance at an older age, which means a higher premium, and with possibly negative health changes, again upping the premium,” Kruman says. “It’s vital to have a well worked-out plan of personal life insurance, which means not tied to a job.”

Find an independent financial advisor. “An independent advisor doesn’t have a company telling them what to invest clients’ money in,” says Kruman. “A client’s best interest should always be the number one priority for an advisor, and it’s easier to maintain that focus by being independent of any parent company’s fee goals or investment selection limitations.”

Consider making a Roth conversion now. When you move money from a tax-deferred retirement account into a Roth account, the money is taxed at that time. “But by making that conversion, you are putting yourself in a position to get tax-free income for life if you comply with two requirements,” Kruman says. Those requirements: be at least age 59 ½ and don’t take any gains out of the Roth for five years. Most financial professionals expect taxes to go up sometime in the future. One reason is that the recent economic stimulus will need to be paid for at some point. Another reason is that the tax cuts passed in 2017 will expire at the end of 2025 for personal rates. “So paying the taxes now at a lower rate when you make the Roth conversion is the better bet for the long run,” he says.

“Now is a tough time for many,” Kruman says, “but it is time that can be used wisely to consider the things you can differently to protect yourself and your family financially from the next period of economic uncertainty.”

About Steve Kruman
Steve Kruman is a financial planner, investment advisor and insurance agent at Bryce Wealth Management. He’s also a licensed attorney in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, focusing on estate planning. Kruman is a Life & Qualifying Member of the Million Dollar Round Table, the only industry organization for people who are ethical top performers.

MIT Sloan Study of COVID-19

MIT Sloan study shows public health interventions in COVID-19 Pandemic could lead to faster economic recovery

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised critical questions about the impact of public health responses on the economy. An important issue for policymakers is whether current interventions like social distancing have economic costs. In a recent study by MIT Sloan School of Management Prof. Emil Verner, he analyzed the economic effects of the 1918 Flu Pandemic and found that public health interventions have no adverse effect on local economic outcomes. His study shows that cities that intervene earlier and more aggressively experience a relative increase in economic activity after the pandemic.

In normal times, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) like social distancing and quarantines are bad for the economy. They make it more difficult for economic activity to take place, like going to work. This leads to the notion of a tradeoff between public health interventions and the economy. Policymakers are in uncharted territory, with little guidance on what the expected economic fallout will be and how the crisis should be managed,” says Verner.

To address these issues, Verner and his colleagues studied the economic effects of the largest influenza pandemic in U.S. history, the 1918 Flu Pandemic. They looked at the severity of the pandemic as well as the speed and duration of NPIs, which resemble many of today’s NPIs, including school, theater, and church closures, public gathering bans, and restricted business hours. The team analyzed how the pandemic impacted manufacturing employment, manufacturing output, bank assets, consumer durables, and mortality.

Their study highlighted that areas that were more severely affected by the 1918 Flu Pandemic saw a sharp and persistent decline in real economic activity. The data showed an 18% reduction in state manufacturing output for a state at the mean level of exposure. Exposed areas also saw a rise in bank charge-offs, reflecting an increase in business and household defaults.

“The patterns are consistent with the notion that pandemics depress economic activity through reductions in both supply and demand. Importantly, we also found that the more affected areas of the country remain depressed relative to less exposed areas from 1919 through 1923,” he said.

Comparing the speed and duration of NPIs across cities, the researchers found that cities that intervened more aggressively performed better economically the year following the pandemic. Reacting 10 days earlier to the arrival of the pandemic in a city led to an increase in manufacturing employment by around 5% after the pandemic. Similarly, implementing NPIs for an additional 50 days increased manufacturing employment by 6.5%.

“It’s clear from this data that NPIs work and there is no evidence that they lead to a worse economy. They are the most beneficial way to protect our health and the health of our economy. We can’t go back and act more quickly in the COVID-19 pandemic, but we can apply this information now. Lifting restrictions too early could make the economy worse by leading to a resurgence of the virus in an even more destructive pandemic,” he said.

Verner added, “This isn’t a choice about saving lives or saving the economy. We won’t have a normal economy if we lift restrictions too early.”

Verner is a co-author of “Pandemics depress the economy, public health interventions do not: Evidence from the 1918 Flu” with Sergio Correia of the Federal Reserve Board, and Stephan Luck of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

The MIT Sloan School of Management is where smart, independent leaders come together to solve problems, create new organizations, and improve the world. Learn more at mitsloan.mit.edu