Posts tagged with "electric power"

rolls royce image for use by 360 magazine

ROLLS-ROYCE ELECTRIC HISTORY

ROLLS-ROYCE AND ELECTRIC POWER: A PROPHECY, A PROMISE AND AN UNDERTAKING

Electrification has long been promoted as the future of automotive propulsion. Mainstream manufacturers are increasingly embracing hybrid and battery electric vehicle (BEV) technology, supported by the expansion of national charging infrastructures.

To date, Rolls-Royce has communicated its electrification strategy in three simple statements:

  • The marque will introduce an all-electric car this decade (2020 – 2030).
  • This car will be a pure BEV, not a hybrid of any kind.
  • It will be launched only when the time is right, and every element meets Rolls-Royce’s technical, aesthetic and performance standards.

WHY ELECTRIC POWER?

The internal combustion engine (ICE) was not the only, nor the default, means of propulsion for early motor cars at the beginning of the 20th century. Indeed, in the early 1900s engineers and manufacturers initially divided their loyalties precisely between three competing technologies: the ICE, steam power and electricity.

Steam power, though well understood, relatively sophisticated and, at the time, ubiquitous in industry and other forms of transport, quickly proved less practical for use in motor cars. It therefore fell to internal combustion and electricity to vie for supremacy.

Electric power lost the battle for two main reasons: extremely limited range and the absence of a charging infrastructure. A century later, despite significant advances, these remain as barriers to widespread adoption (although increasingly less so), both in terms of technology and consumer perception.

But the characteristics that first drew engineers to electric power – silent operation, instant torque, tremendous power, and the absence of exhaust fumes – remain highly alluring, particularly for luxury motor cars. Indeed, some have speculated that, had he been able to solve the range and charging issues, Sir Henry Royce might have chosen electric power alone for his motor cars.

The innate and perfect suitability of electric power underpins the marque’s explicit commitment to deliver an all-electric Rolls-Royce this decade. In doing so, it can draw on a unique history and heritage; a connection with electric power that pre-dates the company itself, and featuring the main protagonists who would, between them, create the world’s most famous automotive brand – beginning with Sir Henry Royce himself.

SIR HENRY ROYCE

Born in 1863, Henry Royce was one of the world’s first electrical engineers. After his apprenticeship with the Great Northern Railway was cut short for family financial reasons, he worked briefly as a toolmaker at Greenwood & Batley in Leeds, where he first developed an interest in electrical power.

In 1881, he joined the Electric Light & Power Generating Company (EL&PG) in Southwark. During this time, he attended evening classes in electrics at the City & Guilds of London Institute, having received only a year of formal schooling as a child. A year later, aged just 19, he moved to the EL&PG’s new subsidiary, the Lancashire Maxim-Weston Electric Co. Ltd, as Chief Electrician, providing street and theatre lighting to the city of Liverpool. But within two years, the company folded, and the famously driven, hardworking Royce struck out on his own.

His new enterprise, F H Royce & Co, initially made small electrical appliances such as doorbells, lamps, fuses and switches. The business thrived, and was soon producing larger, more complex devices including dynamos, electric motors, and winches. In 1902, Royce supplied electric motors for Pritchett & Gold, a London-based battery-maker that had diversified into building electric cars.

Though Royce himself never built or owned an electric motor car, he created internal combustion engines that delivered the driving experience we associate with electric propulsion today: effortless torque, silent running and the sensation of one continuous, powerful gear. His technical expertise and pioneering achievements underpin the marque’s historical claim as a world leader in electrification in both luxury and social settings.

THE HONOURABLE CHARLES ROLLS

The Hon. Charles Rolls was also a highly gifted engineer; but his enthusiasm for electricity began even earlier in life. When he was just nine years old, he rigged up an electric bell between his bedroom and the stables at The Hendre, the family’s ancestral home in Monmouthshire. He also planned and supervised the installation of electricity in the servants’ quarters; deploying the powers of salesmanship that would later make him world-famous, he persuaded his father, Lord Llangattock, to pay for it.

Rolls’ passion for motor cars was equally precocious. In 1896, aged 18, he travelled to Paris and bought his first car, a 3¾ hp Peugeot Phaeton. Two years later, while still an engineering student at Cambridge, he acquired his only electric-powered car, an American-made vehicle called The Columbia Electric Carriage, imported into the UK by Paris Singer (heir to the sewing machine dynasty) and sold as the ‘City & Suburban’ car. Rolls regarded this as the best then available.

In an interview published in The Motor-Car Journal in April 1900, Rolls described electric propulsion, in terms that, over a century later, carry the ring of prescient prophecy:

The electric car is perfectly noiseless and clean. There is no smell or vibration, and they should become very useful when fixed charging stations can be arranged. But for now, I do not anticipate that they will be very serviceable – at least for many years to come.”

Rolls made his own small contribution to solving the problem, by providing a battery-charging station at his car showroom on Lillie Road in Fulham for the private or rentable electric Broughams that were all the rage in London at the time.

In 1904, Charles Rolls agreed to become an agent for the Contal Electromobile electric car. But on meeting Henry Royce and seeing his new motor car, he cancelled the agreement.

As he correctly predicted, it would be a long time before electric vehicles became truly viable on any scale. But it is tempting to think that had this visionary entrepreneur survived the air crash that claimed his life at the young age of just 32, the day might have come rather sooner.

A SERIES OF CONNECTIONS

While Rolls and Royce are immortalised as the founders, others, perhaps less well-known, were intimately and crucially involved in the events that led to the creation of the Rolls-Royce marque. They, too, were luminaries in the worlds of motoring and electric power around the beginning of the 20th century; history and the marque are indebted to all the following:

HENRY EDMUNDS

In his early career, Henry Royce worked for Brush Electrical Engineering Company Ltd, where he met Henry Edmunds, the company’s engineer. Edmunds earned his place in history when, on 4 May 1904 at the Midland Hotel in Manchester, he announced: “Mr. Royce, may I introduce you to Charles Rolls”.

The man who would be remembered by posterity as ‘The Godfather of Rolls-Royce‘ was a towering figure in his own right. A friend of Joseph Swan (the inventor of the incandescent lightbulb) and Thomas Edison (the inventor of almost everything else), he was a pioneer of electric lighting, traction and telephony, and was present at both the first successful sound recording and telephone call. He also brought into being the world’s first electrified underground railway, when he persuaded the engineer in charge of London’s City & Southwick Railway (now the City branch of the Northern Line) to operate trains powered by electricity rather than steam.

In 1888, Edmunds established W T Glover & Company, which became the world’s leading manufacturer of electricity cabling. In 1894, he supplied lighting cables for a vast dock complex and industrial estate (the world’s first) serving the Manchester Ship Canal: the lighting itself was designed and installed by Henry Royce.

No proof exists that Edmunds played any part in the development of Royce’s motor cars. He was, however, the most experienced motorist among Royce’s friends and colleagues, so presumably offered expert advice and encouragement as Royce painstakingly turned his ideas into reality.

E A CLAREMONT

Conventional wisdom states that Royce co-founded F H Royce & Co with a partner, E A Claremont. However, research has shown that Claremont joined the company some six months after its formation; Royce himself wrote, ‘I was induced to found… a small company in my own name’ and none but his was ever used.

While the original myth may be flawed, it is certainly true that the two men’s careers were closely entwined for many years. Claremont was a partner in F H Royce & Company, Joint Managing Director of F H Royce & Company Limited, Chairman of Royce Limited and the first Chairman of Rolls-Royce Limited; both were also Members of the Institute of Electrical Engineers.

CLAUDE JOHNSON

Broad-shouldered, extroverted and a talented salesman, Johnson was the self-styled ‘Hyphen in Rolls-Royce’. In 1903, he quit his role as secretary of the Automobile Club of Great Britain & Ireland – whose members included the previously mentioned Henry Edmunds – to work for Paris Singer’s City & Suburban Electric Carriage company.

After less than a year, however, Johnson left to join C S Rolls and Co, later becoming Managing Director of Rolls-Royce Ltd. He was responsible for much of the company’s early publicity: in advertisements produced for the UK and US markets, he described Rolls-Royce as ‘a petrol car as smooth and quiet as an electric’. And to complete the symmetry, Paris Singer became the world’s first owner of a Rolls-Royce motor car.

ELECTRIFICATION IN THE GOODWOOD ERA

In the spirit of these founding figures, Rolls-Royce Motor Cars remains an electrification pioneer today. When the first production fully electric Rolls-Royce reaches the market, it will be the culmination of research and development work that has been in progress at the Home of Rolls-Royce at Goodwood, for well over a decade.

2011 – PHANTOM EE (102EX)

In 2011, the marque released Phantom Experimental Electric (EE), codenamed 102EX; a fully operational and road-legal battery-electric version of its pinnacle product.

Phantom EE was never intended for production, serving instead as a working test-bed for clients, VIPs, the media and enthusiasts to experience electric propulsion and share their experiences, thoughts and considerations directly with Rolls-Royce designers and engineers.

The car’s 6.75L V12 petrol engine and gearbox were replaced with a lithium-ion battery pack and two electric motors mounted on the rear sub-frame, connected to a single-speed transmission with integrated differential. This system gave a maximum power output of 290kW and torque of 800Nm, compared to 338kW and maximum torque of 720Nm, delivered at 3,500rpm, for the V12 Phantom of the time.

While Phantom EE drew widespread acclaim for its technical accomplishment, particularly its near-total silence and impressive torque delivery, its limited range, long charging cycles and three-year battery life remained significant hurdles that Rolls-Royce would need to address in order to satisfy the expectations of its clients.

2016 – ROLLS-ROYCE VISION NEXT 100 (103EX)

Launched in 2016, this radically innovative concept car set out to define the marque’s long-term vision of luxury mobility. It presented the motor car as offering truly individualized personal mobility, and an immersive emotional and sensory experience.

103EX was built around four key design tenets:

Coachbuilt bodywork will allow clients to commission a car that reflects their personal vision. A virtual assistant and chauffeur powered by artificial intelligence offer an effortless journey. The interior creates a Grand Sanctuary, crafted from rare and exclusive materials. And with its size and scale – 5.9 meters long and 1.6 meters high – the car ensures a Grand Arrival on reaching its destination.

Built on an advanced lightweight platform and powered by a proprietary, all-electric drive train, the motor car is completely autonomous.

The EX-suffix confirms that 103EX was a purely experimental car, never destined to enter production. Following a spectacular debut in London, the car embarked on a three-year world tour, returning to the Home of Rolls-Royce at Goodwood in 2019.

Learn more about RR HERE.

ILLUSTRATION BY NICOLE SALAZAR FOR USE BY 360 MAGAZINE

The RIMAC NEVERA

RIMAC NEVERA IS THE WORLD’S FASTEST ACCELERATING PRODUCTION CAR

While on its way to its American debut at ‘The Quail: A Motorsports Gathering’ in California, the Rimac Nevera made a quick stop at the drag strip at Famoso Raceway. Back in June, it set the unofficial world record for the fastest accelerating production car but now, with Famoso Raceway officials and the experts from DragTimes, it was time to do it again.

Driven by Brooks Weisblat from Dragtimes, with standard Michelin Pilot Sport 4S tyres – just like every Nevera – the car lined up at Famoso drag strip, with the air temperature at 37oC/98F and track temperature at 65oC/149F.

With its Launch Control engaged – done by simply putting your left foot on the brake and flooring the accelerator – the Nevera prepared to unleash the full force of its 1,914hp powertrain through four separate electric motors. Having lifted a foot off the brake, the Nevera’s advanced control systems, including Rimac All-Wheel Torque Vectoring 2, constantly monitored which wheels had the most grip, portioning out the power to minimize wheelspin and maximize acceleration as it launched down the strip.

And in just a blink of an eye, the Nevera set the ¼-mile in a production car world record time of 8.582 seconds, at a top speed of 167.51mph. The run was the eleventh of the day in quick succession, without any performance degradation between the runs, and can be seen in full on the Dragtimes YouTube channel.

Nevera’s previous unofficial world record quarter-mile time for a production car was set at 8.62 seconds earlier this year during testing in Croatia on an unprepared airstrip. Rimac has now beaten its own record and produced times that can be independently verified by third parties – with lots of performance still to be unlocked through over-the-air software updates.

Miroslav Zrnčević, Test and Development Driver said:

“This was our first test on a VHT (glued) surface, so we did not know what to expect. At first we were hitting less than expected ¼ mile times (8,7 and 8,8 seconds) than we did on a normal, non prepped surface in Europe. The track temperature was 65oC and we had to do some adjustments. Our traction control learns the surface on each run and adjusts the torques on the wheels. After some adjustments and different tire warm up strategies we managed to get better results. Brooks helped with his experience of staging the car and we managed to set the world record for the fastest accelerating production car and also beat our own ¼-mile record. Still, we are confident that the Nevera has much more to give and that we can go even quicker with more experience and testing on this kind of surface. We will be back.”

Mate Rimac, Founder and CEO said:

“Our business started with a BMW 3 Series that I had converted to electric power, which went on to set a number of FIA acceleration records. But what we have produced today is on a completely different level. The Concept_One, back in 2011, was the fastest accelerating EV in the world, running the quarter-mile in 9.9 seconds. We’ve now broken that record with a standard production car by 1.4 seconds. With four independent motors, each individually controlled, we have so much flexibility over how the car accelerates and corners, giving us a huge advantage over any combustion-engined vehicles.

“But Nevera is about so much more than speed. With the largest battery pack ever fitted to a production car, it can travel 340 miles on a single charge. With in-house-developed Rimac All-Wheel-Torque Vectoring 2 it’s as agile as it is fast, and with electrically adjustable dampers and active aerodynamics it’s comfortable and quiet on a cruise, and a performance machine on a track.”

Designed, engineered, tested and manufactured in-house at Rimac Automobili‘s global headquarters in Croatia, Nevera’s name proudly carries its Croatian heritage. A nevera is a mighty Croatian storm, known for its speed, ferocity and energy – a fitting name therefore for both the Nevera’s character and ability. Able to transform in a split second from a supple grand tourer to an all-out force of nature, Nevera is charged by lightning much like its namesake.

Green Car by Mina Tocalini for 360 Magazine

China’s EV Industry Growth

1.3M Electric Vehicles Were Sold In China In 2020 – Projected For 51% Increase By 2021

China has become a relatively rich market for Electric vehicles (EVs) in recent times, and companies like Tesla have pounced on the opportunity. China posted a record number of EVs sold in the country in 2020, despite the global downturn of the automotive industry due to the COVID-19 pandemic. According to data presented by TradingPlatforms, 1.3M EVs were sold in China in 2020– a rise of 8% YoY, but is projected to grow by over 51% in 2021 to almost 2M.

EV Enters Mainstream– China One of Promising Markets, Despite Negative Effects of Pandemic

EVs have entered the automotive mainstream in recent times with Tesla setting the tone for affordable and stylish EVs. In 2019, the global EV market was valued at just over $162B and is expected to see tremendous growth in the next decade. The global EV market is projected to have a compound annual growth rate of 22.12% in the period from 2019-2026, and rise to a value of almost $803B in 2026.

China is a particularly strong market for EVs, where a record number of EVs were sold in 2020. However, recent policy changes around the EV industry in China, and the more recent Coronavirus pandemic, have slowed down the strong momentum EVs once generated. Despite this, the number of EVs sold in China still saw a modest increase of 8% YoY from 2019-2020 to a record 1.3M units sold.

Demand is also expected to rebound after 2020’s sharp downturn for the entire industry. EV sales are projected to increase by over 51% to almost 2M EVs sold. Automotive industry expert Chris Jones noted: “Prospects are very good for China’s EV market in 2021. There is already an excellent network of standardized public EV chargers in China, good government support and now a return to strong consumer demand.”

SAIC-GM-Wuling and Tesla Carried Chinese EV Industry Through Turbulent Time

Two brands and their vehicles carried the Chinese EV industry through a difficult period caused by the pandemic: SAIC-GM-Wuling and Tesla. The Tesla Model 3 was the most popular EV in China for a time until the Wuling Hong Guang Mini EV entered the market in the middle of 2020. As of July 2020, the Tesla Model 3 was the most registered new electric car in China with the Wuling Hong Guang Mini EV already following closely behind.

An estimated 11,000 Model 3’s had been registered by that period while 7,250 Wuling Hong Guang Mini EV had already been registered despite deliveries only starting in the same month. By the end of 2020, SAIC-GM-Wuling had become the most popular EV brand in China with an estimated 177,000 units in car sales compared to Tesla’s 137,460 units.

The two brands offer two very different EVs, yet found that their shared success that carried the Chinese EV market through a difficult time. Jones further notes: “If it had not been for the huge success of these two very different EVs, the Chinese EV market would have declined in 2020. Between them, the two models represented one in five of all EVs sold in China.”

You can read more about the story with more statistics and information at TradingPlatform’s website.

 

 

Lexus UX, Vaughn Lowery, 360 MAGAZINE, Amazon headquarters, Seattle

LEXUS UX

By Alexandria Baiz × Vaughn Lowery

As of late, 360 Magazine had the opportunity to join Lexus in Seattle for an intimate ride and drive of their wholly-new UX SUV at the newly reimagined luxurious Loews Hotel 1000. This seaport city is home to both tech giants Microsoft and Amazon. With Lexus’s innovative track record for having unparalleled technology within their cabin, it was befitting that they brought us to the home of the Space Needle. Subsequently, this town is known to think outside of the box.

The 2019 Lexus UX takes a step into the future of modern luxury with its two most affordable and compact SUVs – the UX 200 and UX 250h. UX stands for urban crossover (x-over). The UX 200 will be released in December 2018 starting at $32,000 and the UX 250h will be released in January 2019 for around $34,000. Gearing towards an opulent compact car with an exterior design so specific, the UX has a signature three-dimensional shape that makes it different from its siblings.

The front has brow-shaped LED lights with optional ultra-small 3-projector LED units. Across the back of the boot, are an innovative wrap of three-dimensional LED lights which help with stability on the highways – a standout design element on the UX. The structure is built to mold into an everyday vehicle that is stable, perfect for urban use because it’s small and easy to park. We had no problem squeezing to the front of the Bainbridge ferry.

The 18″ 5-spoke aluminum alloy dark gray metallic wheels are proportional to the overall aesthetics of the vehicle. Available in a variety of twelve exterior colors, two of which are exclusive to the UX F Sport – Cadmium Orange and Nori Green. The Cadmium Orange includes a cherry base with yellow lowlights, making it appear vivid and adding tons of depth. Nori Green possesses bright highlights and dark contrast alongside of calm shades, drawing the color brilliant. Both of these colors are newfangled and daring for the Lexus brand.

The F Sport package is available in both the UX 200 and UX 250h model as well as has enhanced features and style which contributes to its name. This option comes in the two colors – Ultra White and Ultrasonic Blue Mica 2.0. The F Sport performance is exceptional, transforming the UX into a bespoke-like designer car with front sports seats, grille design, and jet-black trim.

The concept of UX stems from the versatility and adaptability this vehicle offers. With a seamless interior coupled with the Japanese concept of engawa offers a richer field of vision. Executed with a high-strength structure, placement of sound absorbing and insulating materials throughout, one can enjoy an extremely quiet ride.

The connection between driver and the vehicle is apparent with the “seat-in-control” concept. Entering and exiting is made easy with hip-point bottom cushions. 8-way power driver seats (including lunbar) allows the driver to operate with a comfortable yet natural posture.

All UX models are fabricated to ensure safety while driving. The Pre-Collision System alerts drivers of pedestrians, cyclists and other vehicles with a forward-facing camera and radar system. The LSS+ 2.0 system enhances this with specific light detection for different hours of the day. If the Pre-Collision System detects a high possibility of collision, an audio and visual alert will prompt the driver to take action. If the driver does not break at that point, the system may automatically apply brakes to help mitigate impacts. Dynamic Radar Cruise Control maintains a preset distance and operates between 0 to 110 mph. The Lane Departure Alert is extremely helpful with the Multi-Information Display (MID) the system can use forward-facing cameras to detect colored land marking illustrations. If the driver deviates from a visibly marked lane, the system alerts the driver with an audio and visual alert. In addition, the UX has an Electric Power Steering and Steering Assist. The Road Sign Assist can read a variety of traffic signs and will display them on the vehicle’s MID. Furthermore, Parking Support Brake uses braking control and visual warnings to reduce possible contact with moving objects while parking.

This Lexus is extraordinary with its high definition, intuitive technology, and overall performance. The UX includes a standard 7″ TFT (thin-film-transistor) LCD control panel while the UX F Sport features an 8″ TFT LCD panel design with a movable meter ring. By pressing a switch on the steering wheel, it moves to the right, enlarging the multi-information display. With the Lexus Remote Touch Interface, the 2019 UX feels as familiar as a smartphone. The most impressive tech feature is Amazon’s “Alexa” – which immediately connects you to play music; find directions; open your garage door on a rainy day; lock/unlock from a smart device and amongst other things control the lights in your home. The Lincoln Navigator is the only other vehicle in Northern America which offers Alexa. Moreover, additional driver connectivity features include Apple CarPlay, 4GB Wi-Fi Hotspot, Voice recognition for commands and the SiriusXM. The heads-up display allows drivers to focus more on the road and less on the infotainment unit.

The UX complies with the global trend of efficient gas mileage vehicles – UX 200 at 33 mpg (2.0- liter inline four-cylinder engine, similar to competitors but with less under-hood heat and lower weight for better vehicle balance). The UX 250h at 39 mpg, making it the wave of their next generation of hybrids. With 181 hp, the UX 250h is the fuel-efficient leader with the best-combined mpg of any CUV and/or SUV without a plugin NA.

In short, the Lexus UX 200 and UX 250h is a shoo-in for a ‘xennial’ buyer – a person who grew up in an analog environment and can easily adapt to present-day’s digital society. Just think of all of your friends and family members with a recent graduate degree or higher residing in a metropolis. Most likely they have a high appreciation for the arts and take local trips within their surrounding area with one or more cronies and a small lap dog in tow.