Posts tagged with "automotive designs"

2023 Toyota Crown in Nashville via 360 MAGAZINE.

2023 Toyota Crown

Listen to Mustafa Jawed speak to 360 MAG podcast HERE about the all-new 2023 Toyota Crown. From Nashville, Vaughn Lowery and Armon Hayes discuss their driver impressions.

During a tour of Music City, 360 MAGAZINE had an exclusive meeting with the only Toyota sedan to offer the HYBRID MAX System – the all-new Crown AKA new age Kanmuri. As well as maneuvering different terrains in Tennessee, this distinctive crossover caught the attention of spectators.

Over the past seventy years, the Toyota Crown has been recognized in Japan as one of the prestigious vehicles in its class. Now, it is being reintroduced to the US market after a 50-year hiatus, becoming the new flagship of the invincible mid-tier automotive brand. Equipped with standard AWD in tandem with intuitive technology like a Drive Connect, which can be established by a simple voice command, “Hey Toyota,” making searches for points of interest effortless.

Its bi-tonal exterior easily dresses up any Met Gala rug. And, with 21-inch wheels, the steep position offers an additional height of 4 inches above its predecessors, the Camry and Avalon. Thus, increasing the driver’s visual range as well as their overall driving control. The performance hybrid version pushes approximately 340 horsepower, with 400 lb-ft of torque, enough strength that no driver or passenger can ignore. Available in three categories: XLE (starting  at $41,045), Limited (starting at $46,595) and Platinum (starting at $53,445) with dual hybrid powertrains – Toyota Hybrid System (THS) and Hybrid Max that is exclusive to Platinum models.

Nashville 2023 Toyota Crown sedan drive with 360 MAGAZINE.
Nashville 2023 Toyota Crown sedan drive with 360 MAGAZINE.

‘Again, Toyota has set the record straight. With thick thighs and an arched back, it’s recalls the X6, dubbing this vehicle in an urban territory as the Bargain Beamer.’ – Vaughn Lowery

Toyota Crown Returns to the US with Bold Style and New Hybrid Max Powertrain

  • Reimagined Sedan with Bold Styling, Premium Comfort and Elevated Ride Height
  • Three Grades, XLE, Limited and Platinum, All with Standard Electronic On-Demand AWD
  • Hybrid Powertrain Standard with Choice of First-Ever HYBRID MAX or Toyota Hybrid System
  • HYBRID MAX on Platinum Pairs a 2.4-L Turbo Hybrid Engine with Rear eAxle for 340 HP
  • Spacious Interior and Quiet Ride, with Standard Adaptive Variable Suspension on Platinum
  • Platinum Grade Offers Unique Bi-Tone Paint and Standard 21-inch Wheels
  • Toyota’s All-New Audio Multimedia System with 12.3-inch Touchscreen Standard

With a striking debut, Toyota is reimagining the full-size sedan with the all-new 2023 Toyota Crown. Built to deliver an intuitive driving experience, this new premium sedan brings powerful acceleration and confident handling, along with supreme comfort for a sophisticated ride, all wrapped in a bold new design. It is also the first Toyota sedan to offer the HYBRID MAX System, Toyota’s performance hybrid with power that drivers will feel. Available in three grades: XLE, Limited and Platinum, Toyota Crown will offer a choice of two different hybrid powertrains: HYBRID MAX or the fourth generation Toyota Hybrid System (THS).

The HYBRID MAX powertrain, exclusive to the Platinum grade, is Toyota’s all-new performance hybrid that puts out a manufacturer estimated 340 net horsepower. Paired with a 2.4-liter turbocharged engine and a direct shift 6-speed automatic transmission, HYBRID MAX produces powerful torque at low RPM for sporty, exhilarating driving and has a manufacturer-estimated 28 MPG combined city/highway fuel economy rating. XLE and Limited grades are equipped with THS, a highly efficient hybrid system with a newly developed, high-output bipolar nickel-metal hydride battery that can achieve a manufacturer-estimated 38 MPG combined city/highway rating.

Built on a newly developed chassis based on Toyota’s GA-K platform, Crown has a raised overall height that’s nearly four inches higher than Camry. The unique height of this sedan offers increased road visibility, along with easy entry and exit. Its flowing silhouette and sculpted body lines create a fresh look that is entirely unique for its class. Altogether, the Crown package is a combination of innovative style, performance and function.

The XLE grade comes equipped with the 2.5-liter THS, AWD, three selectable drive modes, 19- inch alloy wheels, heated and powered Softex and fabric front seats and our all-new Toyota Multimedia System with 12.3-inch touchscreen and 6 speakers. It is available in five colors: Black, Oxygen White, Magnetic Gray Metallic, Heavy Metal and Supersonic Red, with a black interior.

The Limited grade also comes equipped with XLE features and adds multibeam LED headlights, a fixed panoramic roof, leather-trimmed seats that are heated and ventilated up front and heated in the rear, 11-speaker JBL audio system, rain sensing windshield wipers and intelligent clearance sonar along with rear cross-traffic braking. There is also an available Advanced Technology package that adds dark metallic 21-inch, 10-spoke alloy wheels, a birds-eye view camera and digital key (with Remote Connect subscription). Interior colors include black, black and chestnut and macadamia.

The Platinum grade includes everything on XLE and Limited and raises the bar with the HYBRID MAX powertrain, Adaptive Variable Suspension, six selectable drive modes, Advanced Park and unique 21-inch machined 10-spoke alloy wheels with black accents. The color palette adds a Toyota first bi-tone paint option, with black paint that extends from the hood to the trunk, that can be paired with Oxygen White, Heavy Metal, Supersonic Red or an all new, bi-tone only Bronze Age color.

Each grade of Crown will come with Toyota’s new Audio Multimedia System and Toyota Safety Sense 3.0 standard. It is expected to arrive in Toyota dealerships later this year.

Toyota Crown via 360 Magazine by 360 Magazine

Crown History

 The Crown first debuted in 1955 as the “Toyopet Crown,” Toyota’s first mass produced passenger vehicle. When the first generation was developed, Crown came to symbolize “innovation” and “pushing the limit” within Toyota. Since then, it has gained recognition in Japan as Toyota’s premium sedan. It was also the first Japanese car to hit American shores back in 1958, last being sold in the US in 1972.

Across the 15 generations of Crown, it has been a vehicle that has led the way with innovative technology — pursuing value through engineering that is one step ahead of its time. For the new Crown, Toyota’s development team once again set innovation and pushing the limit at the core of the new generation’s concept. Toyota team members from product planning, design and engineering worked together to identify a Crown for a new era. The result is a completely new Toyota Crown that throws off the conventional concepts of a sedan and takes it into a new era.

Design choices push the limit, with large-diameter wheels that give the car a powerful style, a raised hip point for ease of ingress and egress, and meticulous attention to detail on the inside for a comfortable home-away-from-home. Innovation is engineered into the new Crown with two different Hybrid powertrains available, HYBRID MAX with responsive acceleration and THS for great fuel economy and standard electronic on demand All Wheel Drive.

Two Hybrid Systems

Toyota made “hybrid” synonymous with fuel efficiency more than 20 years ago with the first Prius. Today, Toyota continues to expand its hybrid lineup and overall electrified vehicle offerings, with Crown bringing the number of Toyota electrified vehicles to 16. The Toyota Crown innovates on the hybrid front with another first for Toyota sedans, the HYBRID MAX System. This new system is designed to deliver smooth and powerful torque-filled acceleration, while keeping an eye on efficiency.

HYBRID MAX combines a 2.4-liter inline 4-cylinder turbo engine tuned to hit peak torque between 2000-3000 RPM, with a front electric motor that helps maximize torque production. A rear wheel eAxle that’s equipped with a high output water-cooled electric motor is combined with the hybrid engine to directly transmit force to all four wheels, ensuring a thrilling throttle response and linear acceleration throughout the power band.

The fourth-generation Toyota Hybrid System in the Toyota Crown combines a high-efficiency 2.5-liter DOHC four-cylinder engine with two electric motors in a highly compact system. The gas engine employs Variable Valve Timing-intelligent by Electric motor (VVT-iE) on the intake camshaft, and VVT-i on the exhaust camshaft. The variable range for the valve timings of both the intake and exhaust are set to maximize both fuel consumption and output.

THS-equipped vehicles feature selectable NORMAL, ECO and SPORT driving modes that let the driver tailor the Toyota Crown’s performance personality. SPORT mode improves and sharpens throttle response, making hybrid driving more fun. ECO mode changes the throttle and environmental logic to help the driver focus on maximizing mileage from the fuel and battery, while NORMAL mode is ideal for everyday driving. Additionally, an EV (Electric Vehicle) mode allows electric-only driving at low speeds for short distances.

The HYBRID MAX equipped Platinum grade receives a more comprehensive drive mode selection – which not only includes NORMAL, ECO and SPORT but adds three drive modes: SPORT+ mode that provides an emphasis on steering response, flat cornering and a sense of stability, COMFORT mode that provides a more supple drive that emphasizes passenger comfort and a CUSTOM mode that enables drivers to adjust system settings individually, creating a safe profile that suites their driving habits.

All-Wheel Drive at its Smartest

The 2023 Toyota Crown comes standard with Toyota’s Electronic On-Demand All-Wheel Drive. The XLE and Limited grades come with E-Four AWD and the Platinum grade comes with E-Four Advanced, two highly efficient systems that take maximum advantage of the hybrid powertrain’s benefits. Instead of using a transfer case and driveshaft to the rear wheels, Electronic On-Demand AWD employs a separate rear-mounted electric motor to power the rear wheels when needed.

E-Four AWD achieves stable performance by driving the rear wheels with a rear motor, to provide traction when needed in slippery conditions. Toyota Crown uses the latest evolution of this system and strengthens the driving force of the rear motor compared to the conventional E-Four, enhancing stability when cornering. The front and rear wheel driving force distribution is precisely controlled to the front and rear wheels between 100:0 and 20:80, ensuring both enhanced fuel efficiency and comfortable driving performance.

E-Four Advanced AWD, paired with HYBRID MAX on the Platinum grade, delivers power to the front and rear wheels via a front mounted hybrid motor and to rear wheels through a rear- mounted eAxle electric motor. This system helps ensure stable AWD performance and satisfying acceleration thanks to being paired with a direct shift six-speed automatic transmission. On the E-Four Advanced system, the front and rear wheel drive force is precisely controlled between 70:30 and 20:80. The rear motor, which generates power through water cooling, makes it possible to maximize torque to the rear wheels. This new AWD system enhances the drive force of the rear wheels and provides the feel of rear-wheel-drive maneuverability, straight line stability, comfortable turning and responsive acceleration.

Toyota Crown offers either a direct shift six-speed automatic transmission (Platinum grade only) or an electronically controlled Continuously Variable Transmission (eCVT) (XLE and Limited).

The Platinum grade’s direct-shift six speed transmission provides responsive acceleration thanks to Toyota’s new Hydraulic multi plate wet start clutch. A combination of technologies works together to ensure enhanced accelerator operation and vehicle response. The six speed AT also applies the assistance of the motor generator within the HYBRID MAX system, minimizing shift drop across the power band. Drivers can also throw the shifter into fixed gear mode, for paddle shifted fun.

The eCVT on the XLE and Limited Grade uses a shift-by-wire system that shifts gears electronically, providing smart shift operation with a single action. Paired with the THS front and rear hybrid transaxle, Toyota Crown’s powertrain provides low fuel consumption and low noise. Aspects that manage fuel efficiency include an optimized gear ratio and a deceleration mechanism to reduce gear engagement loss.

Toyota Crown via 360 Magazine by 360 Magazine

Smooth Operator, Ready to Ride

Toyota Crown is built around a version of the Toyota New Global Architecture K (TNGA-K) platform that underpins some of the company’s sedans and crossovers. As such, Crown delivers the best of both worlds: sedan driving comfort and crossover-like ride height. Crown’s overall height comes in at 60.6 inches, compared to 56.9 for Camry, its overall length is 194 inches, width is 72.4 inches, and wheelbase 112.2 inches. The TNGA-K platform also allows front strut and rear multi-link suspension tuning that helps foster handling agility while providing a supple, quiet ride.

The Platinum grade comes equipped with a standard Adaptive Variable Suspension. AVS components have been tuned to support the high output of 2.4 L Turbo Hybrid Engine and eAxle. Crown’s AVS uses variable oil pressure shock absorbers. This system automatically controls the friction within the absorber when turning, controlling the damping force, reducing pitch at high drive torque and minimizing the effects of bumpy roads. A linear solenoid type actuator is also equipped on the system to minimize body pitch and roll.

For all grades, Toyota engineers developed a suspension system that provides comfortable maneuverability and a relaxing ride. Front suspension components include a MacPherson- type strut and a new method for fastening the steering gear, enabling rigid, direct handling that also reduces noise and vibration. A newly developed multi-link rear suspension with higher rigidity helps ensure a faster response to drive torque. Rear suspension arm placement was also optimized to suppress changes in the vertical posture, contributing to a flat driving feeling and enhanced texture.

Toyota Crown’s handling is bolstered by an electronically controlled brake system featuring Active Cornering Assist (ACA), which engages the stability control to reduce understeer in certain cornering situations, so the driver feels the enhanced agility, not the system’s operation.

The combination of large-diameter tires and wheels helps give the Toyota Crown its “lift-up” style. The XLE and Limited grades ride on 19-inch multi-spoke two-tone alloy wheels. Limited has available 21-inch 10-spoke dark metallic alloy wheels as part of the Advanced Tech package. The Platinum comes standard with 21-inch machined 10-spoke alloy wheels with black accents.

First Class Cabin

Toyota Crown provides exemplary comfort with standard 8-way power adjustable driver and front passenger seats. Front seat adjustments include slide, recline, tilt, height adjust and lumbar support (driver seat only). Rear seats include ample cushioning and bolster support for maximum enjoyment.

The Toyota Crown comes with standard heated front seats that can be adjusted to three levels. Limited and Platinum add standard ventilated front seats and heated rear seats to the list of creature comforts. The seats are not only comfortable, but stylish, with black Softex® and fabric seating on the XLE and leather-trimmed seating standard on the Limited and Platinum grade.

Dual zone climate control is also standard for all grades. A thin, attractive illuminated control panel runs along the dashboard, just below the multimedia screen, with frequently used functions placed on the lower row keyboard switches. All Crown grades also receive a 12.3- inch color MID. Drivers can select different displays with the push of a button, including a Hybrid System Indicator showing the driver system output and regeneration status to encourage eco-driving habits. As used on other Toyota hybrid models, the display suggests the optimal acceleration amount for eco driving.

The Crown Platinum and Limited grades include a standard panoramic moonroof. For added function and ambience, in-cabin LED lighting adds a premium feel. Illumination, out of consideration for visibility and operability, includes overhead and front/rear footwell lighting, and cup holders, USB ports and door handles also receive lit accents.

Crown has drivers and passengers plugged-in when it comes to charging devices. On the driver’s side, a vertical-type wireless Qi charging with enhanced space efficiency comes standard. There is also a standard USB-Type A and 12V charging port inside the console. A separate dual USB-Type C terminal is also standard on the passenger side, with the insertion port intentionally pointing to the passenger seat. For rear seat passengers, two USB-Type C ports are standard.

To aid outward visibility, the Platinum grade comes standard with Bird’s Eye View Camera with Perimeter Scan, which provides a panoramic overhead view of the vehicle’s surroundings. Bird’s Eye View is available as part of the Advanced Tech Package on the Limited grade.

The standard backup camera features projected path and dynamic gridlines. For additional convenience, Limited and Platinum come standard with a Smart Key System that works on all four doors.

A Sanctuary on the Road

For customers who seek premium experiences in a vehicle, keeping unwanted noise out is paramount. The 2023 Toyota Crown’s cabin brings that priority quietly home. Rather than simply aiming at a “numbers” goal for sound level (decibels), Toyota engineers created a calm atmosphere conducive to enjoying easy conversation or hearing music in cleaner detail.

The high-strength TNGA-K platform is the first defense against noise intrusion, curbing vibration through the steering, floor and structure. Suspension tuning resists road surface disturbances and tire noise is reduced via strategically placed insulation and thoughtful tire/wheel construction.

That’s just the beginning.

Acoustic glass adds a sound-blocking barrier and absorbing insulation and body sealing material are placed throughout the structure, under the carpeting and above the headliner. The materials and their placement were optimized to minimize noise in the frequencies that typically interfere with conversation.

As one example, a sound absorbing pad is placed between the engine bay and cabin to reduce road and engine noise. Engineers also undertook extensive analysis of noise transmission paths and filled spaces around door frames, window openings and wiring harnesses for enhanced cabin quietness. Even the inner rocker and bulkhead are connected with adhesive for maximum noise control.

Next Gen Toyota Audio Multimedia

All Toyota Crown models feature Toyota’s all-new, North American developed Audio Multimedia system. Featuring a 12.3-inch touchscreen, the system offers an improved user experience and a wide range of enhanced connectivity and convenience features, including being Over-the-Air (OTA) updatable. Users can interact with the new system’s design through touch and voice activation. With Intelligent Assistant available through Drive Connect*, simple phrases like “Hey Toyota” awakens the system for voice-activated commands to search for directions, find Points of Interest (POI), adjust audio controls, change the cabin temperatures and more.

The cloud-based native navigation system also offered through Drive Connect allows for real- time Over-the-Air updates for mapping and Points of Interest (POI), and Google POI data is integrated to ensure up-to-date search capability.

The XLE grade features a 6-speaker sound system that provides clean, powerful sound for all types of music. On Limited and Platinum, standard is an audiophile-worthy JBL Premium Audio System with 11 speakers, including a rear subwoofer, powered by an 8-channel amplifier. It was acoustically tuned for Toyota Crown to match unique vehicle characteristics.

Toyota Audio Multimedia allows for simultaneous dual Bluetooth phone connectivity with support for wireless Apple CarPlay® and Android AutoTM capability. A Wi-Fi Connect subscription offers 4G connectivity for up to five devices. Adding to the already robust offering of audio playback ability with HD Radio, USB data and a SiriusXM® Platinum Plan 3- month trial subscription, Wi-Fi Connect also enables the Integrated Streaming feature, providing the ability to link your separate Apple Music® and Amazon Music subscriptions to the vehicle for onboard control.

The Toyota Crown also offers a host of additional Connected Services. A Safety Connect 1- year trial includes an Emergency Assistance Button (SOS), 24/7 Enhanced Roadside Assistance, Automatic Collision Notification, Stolen Vehicle Locator and Collision Assistance. A Service Connect 3 -year trial provides drivers the capability of receiving Vehicle Health Reports, Maintenance Alerts and reminders.

A Digital Key is offered on the Platinum and as part of the Advanced Technology package on the Limited grade. With an active Remote Connect subscription, drivers can use the Digital Key via the Toyota app and allow passive entry unlock on front doors and trunk or push start using smartphone as key. The Digital Key also provides the ability to share keys with friends and family.

Advanced Park, Safety & Other Technology

Standard on the Platinum grade is Toyota’s Advanced Park System. Sensors identify an open parking space, then control steering, shifting, acceleration and braking for hands-free parallel or reverse/forward perpendicular parking.

All Toyota Crown grades come standard with Toyota Safety Sense 3.0 (TSS 3.0), which includes enhancements made possible by system sensors with improved detection capability. The Pre-Collision System with Pedestrian Detection is capable of detecting motorcyclists and guardrails in certain conditions. When making a turn or approaching an intersection, the system is designed to detect certain forward or laterally approaching vehicles and provides audio/visual alerts and automatic braking in certain conditions.

Toyota Crown will be equipped with Dynamic Radar Cruise Control (DRCC). Improved lane recognition delivers refined performance of Lane Departure Alert with Steering Assist and Lane Tracing Assist. Lane Departure Alert with Steering Assist is designed to notify the driver via audible and visual alerts and slight steering force if it senses the vehicle is leaving the lane without engaging a turn signal. When DRCC is set and engaged, Lane Tracing Assist uses visible lane markers or a preceding vehicle to help keep the vehicle centered in its lane.

Automatic High Beams are designed to detect preceding or oncoming vehicles and automatically switch between high beam and low beam headlights. Road Sign Assist is designed to recognize certain road sign information using a forward-facing camera and display it on the multi-information display (MID).

Toyota’s Rear Seat Reminder comes standard on all Toyota Crown grades. The feature can note whether a rear door was opened after the vehicle has been turned on, with a reminder message in the instrument cluster after the engine is turned off, accompanied by multitone chimes.

In addition to the TSS 3.0 system, other standard safety features on the Crown include Blind Spot Monitor (BSM), which is designed to help detect and warn you of vehicles approaching or positioned in the adjacent lanes, and Rear Cross Traffic Alert (RCTA) for added peace of mind by helping to detect vehicles approaching from either side while backing out and alerting you with a visual and audible warning. Hill Start Assist Control (HAC) also comes standard.

Toyota Crown comes with a one-year trial subscription of Toyota Safety Connect® at no additional cost — which includes Emergency Assistance, Stolen Vehicle Locator, Roadside Assistance and Automatic Collision Notification.

Toyota Crown Engine via 360 MAGAZINE

Toyota Limited Warranty

Toyota’s 36-month/36,000 mile basic new-vehicle warranty applies to all components other than normal wear and maintenance items. Additional 60-month warranties cover the powertrain for 60,000 miles and against perforation from corrosion for 60 months with no mileage limitation. Hybrid-related components that require repairs needed to correct defects in materials or workmanship are covered for 8 years/100,000 miles, whichever comes first from original date of first use when sold as new. The hybrid battery is covered for 10 years/150,000 miles, whichever comes first, and is transferable across ownership.

The 2023 Toyota Crown also comes with ToyotaCare, a complimentary plan covering normal factory-scheduled maintenance, for two years or 25,000 miles, whichever comes first, and 2 years of Roadside Assistance, regardless of mileage.

About Toyota

Toyota (NYSE:TM) has been a part of the cultural fabric in the U.S. for more than 60 years, and is committed to advancing sustainable, next-generation mobility through our Toyota and Lexus brands, plus our nearly 1,500 dealerships.

Toyota directly employs more than 39,000 people in the U.S. who have contributed to the design, engineering, and assembly of nearly 32 million cars and trucks at our nine manufacturing plants. By 2025, Toyota’s 10th plant in North Carolina will begin to manufacture automotive batteries for electrified vehicles. With more electrified vehicles on the road than any other automaker, a quarter of the company’s 2021 U.S. sales were electrified.

To help inspire the next generation for a career in STEM-based fields, including mobility, Toyota launched its virtual education hub at www.TourToyota.com with an immersive experience and chance to virtually visit many of our U.S. manufacturing facilities. The hub also includes a series of free STEM-based lessons and curriculum through Toyota USA Foundation partners and virtual field trips.

Toyota Crown via 360 Magazine by 360 Magazine
Bugatti Rimac Illustration by Reb Czukoski for use by 360 Magazine

Bugatti × Rimac Partnership

Rimac Automobili officially joins forces with Bugatti Automobiles under the recently announced, Bugatti Rimac d.o.o. The new company sees two motor vehicle powerhouses generate an exciting movement in the automotive and technology industries, originally initiated and strongly supported by the sports car manufacturer Porsche AG.

Rimac’s short but rich 10-year history from garage start-up by one man, Mate Rimac, took a big leap forward to begin official operating under Bugatti Rimac as of November 1st.

The Rimac Group is the major shareholder in Bugatti Rimac with a 55% stake. Mate Rimac will retain his shareholding in Rimac Group at 35%, with Porsche at 22%, Hyundai Motor Group doing the same at 11%, and other investors making up 32%. The development, production, and supply of battery systems, drivetrains, and other EV components that Rimac is known for and trusted by, will be separated into a new entity, Rimac Technology, that is 100% owned by the Rimac Group.

Bugatti Rimac has the unique combination of two automotive and technological trailblazers. Rimac’s distinctive agility, technical expertise, and relentless innovation in the EV sphere, along with Bugatti’s 110-year heritage of design and engineering of some of the world’s most iconic hypercars, are now combined in the leading hypercar company. Porsche plays a strong role in the joint company as a strategic partner. Along with two managers, the Stuttgart based sports car manufacturer appointed two Supervisory Board members, Oliver Blume and Lutz Meschke.

Mate Rimac’s leadership and strategic direction that has allowed Rimac to become an industry frontrunner means he is exceptionally skilled to lead the company as Chief Executive Officer. As CEO of Rimac Group, he runs both Bugatti Rimac and the new division, Rimac Technology.

Bugatti Rimac’s global headquarters is situated at Rimac’s current base on the outskirts of Zagreb, Croatia, but in time will transition to the recently announced €200M and 200.000m2 Rimac Campus, also serving as the home of Rimac Technology. With construction having now begun, joint research and development of future Rimac Automobili and Bugatti hypercars will ultimately take place there, with projected opening in 2023.

High-tech innovation forms the basis of the state-of-the-art facility, with the capacity to host 2,500 curiosity-driven people and a hive of groundbreaking developments. Bugatti Rimac operates with 435 employees as part of the new company, 300 of headquartered in Zagreb and 135 in Molsheim, France. In addition,180 people at Bugatti Engineering’s location in Wolfsburg, Germany, are supporting the new company. Rimac Technology consists of over 900 employees whilst the Rimac Group tackles over 1,300 employees across its various locations.

Bugatti Rimac’s new Board of Management has determined Christophe Piochon as Chief Operating Officer. He formerly held the position of Director General at Bugatti Automobiles and guarantees the continuation of the manufactory with its worldwide outstanding quality. Larissa Fleischer became Chief Financial Officer, previously being the head of controlling at Porsche in the areas of digitalization and the development of new business models. Lastly, Emilio Scervo is named Chief Technology Officer, having held the same title before at Rimac Automobili.

Rimac Automobili and Bugatti Automobiles will each continue to operate as separate brands and manufacturers, retaining their individual production facilities respectively, as well as the distribution channels. Rimac Technology will continue to innovate, developing vehicle systems and technologies for many global OEMs.

Commenting on the first day of Bugatti Rimac operations, CEO Mate Rimac says, “I am honored to be leading this new fusion of automotive minds and begin what will no doubt be a successful, revolutionary and exciting new chapter for everyone involved. I am also extremely curious to oversee the profound impact Bugatti Rimac will have on the industry, and I look forward to developing innovative new hypercars and technologies.”

He also claims that “[it’s] difficult to find a better match than Rimac and Bugatti. What each party brings to the table in terms of technical expertise, know-how and automotive history makes for an electrifying recipe. Rimac’s fast-paced operations and electrification skills are the perfect complement to Bugatti’s exceptional heritage and craftsmanship. Stay tuned for some truly extraordinary projects in the future.”

“I am convinced that we have found the right mix of experience and know-how, innovative strength and team spirit for the management,” says Lutz Meschke, Deputy Chairman of the Executive Board and member of the board for Finance and IT at Porsche AG. “That’s why I’m very optimistic and because the project is very close to my heart, I will continue to accompany it closely and passionately in the future.”

Oliver Blume, Chairman of the Board of Management at Porsche, named this merger as “the perfect solution” for everyone involved, “Together, we are creating a high-performance automotive company. We have succeeded in positioning the traditional Bugatti brand with its charisma for the future in a way that creates value. Bugatti embodies fascination and passion, and Rimac has great innovative strength and tech expertise.”

Rimac Nevera via Rimac Automobili for use by 360 Magazine

Rimac Automobili Unveils the Nevera

Hypercar manufacturer and electric technology specialist Rimac Automobili unveiled the production version of the C_Two, now becoming the Nevera, an all-electric, 1,914hp, 258mph, $2.4m hypercar designed and engineered to unleash an unprecedented level of performance.

The Nevera is the production-ready iteration of the Rimac C_Two concept car, which was revealed at the International Geneva Motor Show in 2018. Since then, Rimac’s engineers have refined their new flagship on every level during an extensive development program, in the pursuit of the ultimate electric hypercar driving experience. With the majority of key components of the Nevera developed in-house at Rimac’s HQ in Croatia, all systems have been improved and enhanced since the initial prototypes to deliver on the ambitious performance targets set for at the beginning of the project in 2018.

Underlining his own commitment to the project, Mate Rimac will personally test and sign off each of the Neveras, before they are delivered to customers from the company’s current production site on the outskirts of Zagreb, Croatia.

Named after a force of nature

Fittingly, the Nevera bears a proud Croatian name and one that truly reflects the prodigious performance the car can unleash in the blink of an eye. The name given by the locals to a quick, unexpected and mighty Mediterranean storm that races across the open sea off Croatia, a nevera is extremely powerful and charged by lightning.

Appearing with exceptional speed and potency, Rimac’s next-generation hypercar shares the Nevera’s name and looks set to leave a similarly disruptive effect on the global hypercar market. And, like the force of nature it is named after, it is just as adept at transforming its character in an instant – from assured and comfortable grand tourer to ultra-focused performance machine.

Form follows function

Rimac favors lean and effective engineering at every stage, and that philosophy is exemplified in the form-follows-function nature of the Nevera’s timeless, elegant design. It is applied to every single detail, including Rimac’s signature ‘cravat’ feature, which is incorporated into its flanks.

“Since the 17th Century, the necktie has provided a symbol of Croatian strength and identity, and we first paid tribute to it on our Concept­_One hypercar in 2011,” reveals Rimac Director of Design, Adriano Mudri,And, like every element of the car’s design, it is there to provide a key function of the Nevera’s performance, serving as an air intake for the rear cooling systems.”

A comprehensive raft of changes to the Nevera’s bodywork, air diffusers and intakes has delivered a 34% improvement in aerodynamic efficiency over the early prototypes­. The profile of the bonnet, the shape of the pillars and the design of the diffusers, splitters and radiators have all been intensively analyzed and refined to improve airflow and downforce. Inlets and cooling channels have been painstakingly developed to increase the cooling efficiency of both the brake and powertrain systems, resulting in a 30% improvement at low speeds and a seven per cent enhancement at high speeds.

Rimac has also created numerous new innovative active aerodynamic elements to elevate the Nevera’s cooling, performance, stability, and efficiency. The front bonnet profile, underbody flap, rear diffuser and rear wing can each move independently, driven by complex algorithms that provide the optimum aerodynamic configuration for every driving situation. Switching from ‘high downforce’ to ‘low drag’ mode reduces aerodynamic drag by 17.5% to create a 0.3 coefficient of drag. Changing back into ‘high downforce’ mode increases downforce by 326%.

Despite incorporating a wealth of active aerodynamic elements, as well as many cameras and sensors that enable the Driver Coach feature, the Nevera’s body design remains a coherent graphic. It combines both the drama and beauty of a hypercar and appears simultaneously shaped by the air and forged with technology. The stunning butterfly doors elegantly carve away from the car’s wide sill as they open, creating a generous space for ease of entry and egress.

Lightweight, forged alloy wheels feature a unique aerodynamic design that channels cooling air to the Brembo carbon-ceramic braking system and ensures smooth airflow down the car’s flanks.

World’s most advanced monocoque construction

Nevera’s groundbreaking monocoque, developed by the former C_Two Chief Engineer Daniele Giachi, includes a bonded carbon roof, integrated structural battery pack and rear carbon subframe, forming the largest single carbon fibre piece in the entire automotive industry. Weighing less than 200kg and utilising 2200 carbon fibre plys and 222 aluminium inserts, the monocoque encases the car’s battery to form a compact yet incredibly strong structure with a torsional stiffness of 70.000Nm/degree. The level of unmatched strength and safety this provides has contributed to the Nevera meeting strict global homologation standards, and delivering the most rigid structure of any car ever made.

Driving the future

The key to the Nevera’s exceptional performance is Rimac’s pioneering electric powertrain. Every component of the Nevera’s electric powertrain has been exhaustively reworked since its inception to deliver more torque, greater performance and enhanced efficiency.

The unique H-shaped, liquid-cooled, 120kWh, 6960-cell battery was designed from scratch by Rimac and sits at the very heart of the Nevera. Capable of producing 1.4MW of power, the Lithium/Manganese/Nickel battery also forms an integral part of the car’s core, adding 37% structural stiffness to the carbon fibre monocoque. The battery’s optimum positioning low and central within the car’s floor contributes to an ultra-low centre of gravity. This helps create an excellent 48/52 front/rear weight distribution and the best possible handling balance.

Developments of the advanced battery cooling system have made it even more efficient since the introduction of the C_Two, enabling more power to be delivered for greater periods. Four bespoke surface-mounted permanent magnet motors drive the Nevera’s four wheels individually. Together, they enable 1914hp and 2360Nm of torque, which is triple the output of a ‘conventional–engined’ supercar. The front and rear wheels are each connected to a pair of single-speed gearboxes.

Capable of instantly summoning maximum torque from the first moment, the Nevera’s electric motors are 97% efficient–compared with 40% for the most effective internal combustion engines–and completely maintenance-free throughout their operating life.

Out of this world acceleration–beating the ambitious targets

With the ability to sprint to 60mph in 1.85 seconds and continue the acceleration all the way to a 258mph top speed, the Nevera opens up a new dimension in hypercar performance. Accelerating from rest to 100 mph requires just 4.3 seconds and it maintains its eye-widening acceleration throughout a full-throttle cycle, achieving 186mph from rest in 9,3 seconds, shredding a whole 2,5 seconds from the initial targets. Finally, it achieves a record-breaking 8,6 seconds quarter-mile time.

Perfect power delivery, impeccable stopping power

Rimac’s All-Wheel Torque Vectoring 2 (R-AWTV 2) system replaces traditional Electronic Stability Program and Traction Control systems to further bolster grip and traction. Meanwhile, the Nevera’s R-AWTV 2 system enables infinitely variable dynamic responses to road and track conditions by calibrating the amount of torque supplied to each wheel. R-AWTV 2 calculates the precise level of torque to channel through each wheel for ultimate stability and exceptional agility. Both predictive and responsive, R-AWTV reads the road and makes over 100 calculations per second to tailor the level of torque to achieve the desired driving style.

The Nevera is also equipped with cutting-edge braking technology. A complex electro-hyrdaulic brake booster with brake pedal feel simulator distributes the braking force between the friction brakes and electric powertrain, depending on the battery, powertrain and brake state. For instance–it dissipates kinetic energy through the friction brakes if the battery is close to its thermal limits, or activates more regenerative braking in case the friction brakes are hot. All those transitions should remain in the background, not noticeable to the driver. This enables the Nevera to make the highest use of regenerative braking of any other car on the market now. In addition to a maximum range-enhancing regenerative braking of 300 kW provided by the electric motors, substantial stopping power comes from 15 inch Brembo CCMR carbon-ceramic brake discs and six-piston callipers. Combined they provide consistent, fade-free and exceptionally powerful braking, even when the car is subjected to extreme forces on the track.

Relaxed grand tourer with track attack precision

Double wishbone suspension with electronically controlled dampers and active ride height adjustment provides a combination of a smooth and comfortable ride, exemplary body control and ultra-agile handling.

Further emphasizing Rimac’s technology-first approach, the Nevera utilises the very latest electric power steering with steer-by-wire function, enabling adaptive driver-feedback, depending on the drive mode. Additionally, it works as a drive-by-wire system when in “Driver Coach” mode to demonstrate optimum racing lines and vehicle control to the driver.

Rimac’s versatile and responsive R-AWTV 2 system enables drivetrain calibration for the Nevera to facilitate any driving style through seven different driving modes.

For a truly engaging drive on the road, “SPORT” mode sharpens the response of the throttle, brakes, suspension and steering, while “DRIFT” mode supplies more torque to the rear wheels to accentuate oversteer and help hold the car in a controlled power slide on the track. “COMFORT” mode strikes a perfect balance between a relaxing ride, efficiency and driving pleasure, while “RANGE” mode enables the Nevera to achieve maximum mileage from each battery charge. In expert hands, “TRACK” mode sets the Nevera to full, unrestrained configuration to help drivers exploit the car’s full potential. Finally, two “CUSTOM” modes enable drivers to access their personal, pre-selected performance characteristics.

Minimalist design cabin, maximum comfort and control

With space for two occupants in full race regalia and their luggage, Nevera is as much a capable grand tourer as it is a performance hypercar. Digital screens soak up needless toggles and switches, leaving only essential tactile controls, giving more space to enjoy Nevera’s carefully designed interior.

The cockpit features a trio of high-definition TFT screens, which present as much, or as little, information as the user requires. Configured for both track driving and comfort, the layout of the cockpit is divided into two zones. The focus of the top segment is entirely placed on driving pleasure and performance, while the lower part houses the infotainment system, comfort controls and driving data.

Tactile billet aluminum rotary controls and switches, including three displays with rotating control, provide a resolutely analogue feel, tailored to enable the driver to utilize the cutting-edge digital technology in an even more engaging manner. From the cockpit, the driver can monitor every aspect of the car’s performance with real-time telemetry, downloadable to a laptop or smartphone for later review.

360 MAGAZINE, car battery

IDTechEx Explores NiMH Batteries

When we talk about battery-electric vehicles, the lithium-ion battery is dominant; however, for full hybrid electric vehicles (those that have electric-only modes but do not plug-in), NiMH batteries are still the most common battery on the road. With the growing market for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), will this drive further demand for NiMH batteries and stop them from being eliminated from the automotive market?

The new report from IDTechEx on “Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle Markets 2021-2041” covers this topic along with the key players and geographical markets for HEVs. Battery and motor-generator technology is analyzed for HEV cars, buses, and trucks, giving forecasts for Li-ion and NiMH battery demand over the next 20 years.

Toyota is the ruling OEM in the global HEV car market, with over 60% market share in 2019. Other manufacturers have started to eat into this share over the years, but Toyota still reigns supreme. While the other OEMs have mostly transitioned towards Li-ion batteries for their HEVs, Toyota remains committed to NiMH batteries and HEVs for the foreseeable future, with the majority of their line-up now using either NiMH or Li-ion depending on the specifications. For the relatively small batteries that are used in HEVs, the NiMH is still sufficient to meet requirements. It is also much more technologically mature and is less costly than Li-ion.

In 2020, NiMH batteries were still the dominant form installed in HEVs, largely due to Toyota. As Li-ion costs continue to fall and HEV battery capacity increases, NiMH are unlikely to remain competitive but will still see an increase in short term demand. Source: IDTechEx report: “Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle Markets 2021-2041“.

Sales of HEVs have continued to grow throughout the COVID-19 pandemic despite the downturn of the overall car market. This, combined with Toyota’s dominance and NiMH portfolio, provides a good market for NiMH batteries, at least in the short term. Li-ion technology is still evolving and reducing in price; at a certain point, it may no longer be cost-effective to continue using NiMH. Additionally, fossil fuel bans are incoming, with countries like the UK banning purely internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles by 2030 and only allowing hybrids “that can drive a significant distance with zero emissions”. HEV manufacturers will likely increase the battery capacity in order to give more electric-only range, making the Li-ion option more appealing. Even with this stay of execution for HEVs, banning vehicles with ICEs of any sort is likely to follow shortly after. This will eliminate the HEV in many markets and hence the demand for NiMH.

IDTechEx recently published the report “Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle Markets 2021-2041“. This report gives an in-depth look at the historic HEV market in China, Europe, Japan, South Korea, and the US, with an outlook over the next 20 years. An extensive model database of over 80 HEVs sold between 2015 and 2019 is used to determine the market’s battery and motor-generator technology in addition to geographical markets and manufacturer market shares. The total cost of ownership calculations is compared with ICE and 48V hybrids, as well as how HEVs can help manufacturers meet new European emissions targets. For more information on this report please visit www.IDTechEx.com/HEV.

This report forms part of the broader electric vehicle and energy storage research from IDTechEx, which tracks the adoption of electric vehicles, battery trends and demand across more than 100 different mobility sectors. This is summarized in a master report: www.IDTechEx.com/EV, or for a further in-depth analysis, please see the full portfolio of electric vehicle research available from IDTechEx: www.IDTechEx.com/research/EV.

IDTechEx guides your strategic business decisions through its Research, Subscription and Consultancy products, helping you profit from emerging technologies. For more information, contact research@IDTechEx.com or visit www.IDTechEx.com.

T.50 Car illustration by Mina Tocalini of 360 MAGAZINE for use by 360 MAGAZINE.

Gordon Murray Automotive – T.50 Supercar

Gordon Murray Automotive has unveiled its T.50 supercar in full for the first time, showing the finished exterior and interior design and confirming its ground-breaking technical specifications. The T.50 has been engineered to be the purest, lightest, most driver-centric supercar ever.

Improving on his acclaimed McLaren F1 “in every conceivable way”, Professor Gordon Murray CBE is leading the team that will begin building customer versions of the 986kg supercar in January 2022. Justifying its £2.36m (before taxes) price tag, the T.50 promises to deliver an unsurpassed driving experience. It is powered by a 100% bespoke 3.9-litre, 663PS V12 engine that revs to a record-breaking 12,100rpm, and features the most advanced and effective aerodynamics ever seen on a road car – aided by a 400mm rear-mounted fan.

The global premiere is the first time the clean lines of the exterior and the driver-focused interior have been seen. From his first ballpoint sketches, to every engineering and design detail, Murray has led the Gordon Murray Automotive team and briefed and overseen suppliers to drive the project forward at an unrelenting pace. Murray’s design for T.50 was the 50th in a prestigious line of race and road cars he’s penned over his illustrious 50-year career – both reasons combining to name the car T.50.

The most dominant characteristics of the T.50 exterior design are its purity and balance, free from the wings, skirts and vents that adorn most modern-day supercars. The clean surfaces are enabled by the most advanced and effective aerodynamics ever seen on a road car, resulting in deliberately simple, beautiful lines and a timeless appearance. 

The purity of the silhouette is broken dramatically when the pair of dihedral doors rise up and forwards, coming to rest high above the passenger cabin. Inside, the driver-centric approach is plain to see – from the central, jet fighter-like driving position, to the aerospace-grade primary and secondary controls arranged in an ‘ergonomic bubble’ around the driver.

Quality of materials, the utmost precision, and simplicity of visuals define the whole car, but nowhere is this more evident than inside the cockpit. British suppliers are responsible for every major component throughout the interior, as well as every facet of the car’s exquisitely engineered underpinnings – an attribute insisted upon by Murray who was determined the T.50 would be a true British sports car.

From the record-breaking V12 engine, and best lightweight transmission, to the world-first aerodynamic package and the feather-light titanium throttle pedal, every element is 100% bespoke and crafted by a British company that leads in its field. Murray pushed each supplier to their limits to deliver ingenuity, the highest quality and of course new levels of lightness.

With a vision that the car, and every element of its componentry, would be considered ‘engineering art’, Murray set out to create a vehicle that surpassed all others, fostering new levels of pride and connection among owners. Every T.50 customer has the opportunity to meet Murray to discuss their car and personalise it inside and out. Part of this process includes a seat, steering wheel and pedals ‘fitting’ session – personalised to every owner – that will ensure the T.50 is ergonomically perfect and individualised for each discerning customer.

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E.C.D. × PROJECT SAVAGE

E.C.D. AUTOMOTIVE DESIGN UNVEILS 150th VEHICLE, AN ULTIMATE VEHICLE CONCEPT HONORED AS MOST INNOVATIVE AND POWERFUL EVER FROM E.C.D.

E.C.D. Automotive Design (E.C.D.), known for building award-winning custom luxury vehicles, rolls out its momentous 150th truck, known as Project Savage. The eye-catching Defender 110 is an Ultimate Vehicle Concept and is celebrated as the company’s most innovative and most powerful vehicle ever built, symbolizing the evolution of the company throughout the years.

The powerhouse behind Project Savage is a Chevrolet LS3 6.2L V8 engine with performance upgrades and a custom ECU tune, boosting it to nearly 600-horsepower, making this brilliant D110 the most powerful vehicle E.C.D. has ever built. Every inch of Project Savage was hand-built to the client’s specifications at E.C.D. Automotive Design’s Rover Dome, their global headquarters located in Kissimmee, Florida.

Finished in a “Super White” full gloss paint with eggshell-black trim and a set of 20-inch six-spoke custom E.C.D. wheels give Project Savage an incredibly aggressive, yet modern look.

Awarded the most innovative vehicle ever built by E.C.D., Project Savage includes advanced systems never used on an E.C.D. vehicle before, including a wireless Warn Industries winch system that allows full use of the winch remotely within a 50-foot radius of the vehicle. Cosmetic innovations include an extended center console reaching the middle-row, providing passengers with modern luxuries such as wireless charging pads for mobile devices, rear climate controls, heated and ventilated seats, and premium sound with ten JL Audio speakers throughout the vehicle.

Project Savage is perfect for urban cruising, yet fully capable of off-road adventures. Every E.C.D. vehicle is four-wheel drive; however, Project Savage has been upgraded with front and rear-axel limited slip differentials, a two-inch lift suspension kit from Fox, and a hydro-boost braking system for premium braking power.

“Project Savage sums up the evolution of E.C.D. and what we do best. The fusion of classic and modern – that iconic, rugged look combined with modern performance and technology,” says Tom Humble, founder of E.C.D. Automotive Design.

For additional high-resolution images and 4K video, please visit this link.

Additional Information about Project Savage:

Custom Defender 110

Chevrolet LS3 6.2L 600HP V8, stroker assembly with 6-speed automatic transmission

EXTERIOR

Color: Super White in a full-gloss finish with an eggshell black roof and wheel spats

Wheels & Tires: 20″ Custom E.C.D. wheels with Toyo Open Country M/T tires

Side Steps: Full Length side steps with black checker plate

Exterior Accessories: Full checker plates set in black, KBX wing tops, steering guard in black

Grille: Black Heritage Edition Anniversary mesh grille

Bumper: Tubular winch bumper with Warn 10s Platinum winch

Safety Device: Full external roll cage with rear ladder

Lights: Two Baja Designs Squadron Sport LED work lights and the Baja Designs OnX6 Dual Control Amber/White LED light bar

Additional: E.C.D. two-way air system with quick release hoses, Borla performance exhaust system with twin tail pipes, tow and wire package, Fox suspension, Land Rover cast alloy station wagon plaque, anodized hardware (nuts and bolts)

INTERIOR

Seats: Corbeau RRS seats in the front and middle row and four inward facing jump seats in the load area

Leather color: Supersoft Black leather

Seat Design: Double Diamond stitch

Stitch Color: Scarlet Red

Headliner: Black suede

Carpet: Black luxury pile

Electronics: Wireless charging, 110V outlets in front and rear, USBS on dash, inside center console top, and rear portion of extended console area

Steering Wheel: Momo Quark

Gauges: All American series

Additional: Rear AC, two additional cup holders, Flame Red seatbelts, Metal interior components (handles, lock pins and cups)

About E.C.D. Automotive Design
E.C.D. Automotive Design (E.C.D.) is an award-winning creator of prestigious, high-end luxury vehicles that combines classic English beauty with innovation and modern luxury. Each vehicle produced by E.C.D. is the true epitome of unique; a one-off that is entirely designed by the client through our immersive “Luxury Design Experience” and hand-built from the ground up in 2,200 hours by our master-certified ASE craftsmen. The company was founded in 2013 by three British “petrol heads” whose passion for classic vehicles is the driving force behind our exceptionally high standards for quality, custom luxury vehicles. Global headquarters, known as the “Rover Dome,” is a 35,000 square-foot facility located in Kissimmee, Florida that produces 40 vehicles annually and is home to 52 of the most talented employees. E.C.D. Automotive Design has a second design studio located in Malibu, California.