Posts tagged with "Studies"

Artwork by and for use by 360 Magazine

New Studies Shows Polywork Trend

Millennials And Gen Z Choose ‘Polywork’ For More Exciting Lives, Half Of 21 To 40 Year-Olds Say They Do Five Different Types Of Work, ‘Excitement’ More Important Than Money For Today’s Professionals

New research out today reveals that nearly half of young professionals (47 percent) consider themselves people who ‘polywork’ doing an average of five different types of work – with one in ten (11 percent) saying they currently do more than ten types of professional work at the same time.

The majority of 21 to 40 year-old professionals (81 percent) say the pandemic has changed their attitude towards work forever with 45 percent saying they would not consider doing one single type of work for life, but would choose to polywork instead. Three quarters of all young professionals (72 percent) say virtual ways of working have opened up more work possibilities in the last 12 months compared to previous years.

Polywork, a new professional social network that has been created for people who do more than one type of work and cannot be defined by a single job title, asked over 1,000 US professionals about how they work and their attitudes towards modern working. 

Over half of all 21 to 40 year-olds (55 percent) said an ‘exciting’ professional life is more important to them than money with 62 percent saying the opportunity to learn more skills, more quickly through different types of work is more rewarding than professional ‘security’.

A Word from Peter Johnston, the founder of Polywork 

There is a new generation of professionals who do more than one type of work both in their regular job and outside of it, and they no longer feel a single job title reflects what they do or who they are. During the pandemic people have re-evaluated what they want to do, which in turn has accelerated the trend of polywork, using technology to connect with different and varied opportunities, whatever and wherever they may be. We do not see this trend disappearing, not least because Gen Z and Millennials see a variety of work as a way to achieve a more exciting life.

Meet The People Who Polywork

Cassidy Williams, living in Chicago, IL, USA, does more than five different types of professional work across multiple countries including software engineering, public speaking, writing, podcasting, investing, advising, and mentoring. She comments, Work is something that takes up such a huge part of my life, so doing different types of work keeps it more interesting and exciting. I love that I can work with people across the world to do fun things like design mechanical keyboards or more serious things like raise money for good causes. With technology being such an embedded part of our lives, I see this kind of work style being more and more common. People have the ability now more than ever to collaborate, create and just do things that don’t fall into one bucket. We’re past the age of being just one type of worker.

Richard Fearn, living in London UK, has three different types of work on the go at once: producing a musical; managing his technology investments; and running a non-profit company. He comments, I’ve never liked the idea of just doing the same thing every day. I have multiple interests that I’m passionate about and they’ve naturally become different streams of income for me. Modern working attitudes and flexible technology allows my generation to juggle a multitude of things in a way we’ve never been able to before.

To jtrenoin the waitlist for Polywork sign-up at their website.

Art by Mina Tocalini for use by 360 Magazine

COVID-19 Wastewater Testing

COVID-19 Wastewater Testing Proves Effective in New Study, Research Offers Needed Guidance for Early Detection in Nursing Homes, Dorms

Wastewater testing is an effective way to identify new cases of COVID-19 in nursing homes and other congregate living settings, and it may be particularly useful for preventing outbreaks in college dormitories, a new University of Virginia study finds.

The research, a collaboration of UVA’s School of Medicine and School of Engineering, was led by UVA Health’s Amy Mathers, MD. It offers some of the first clear guidance on the most effective methods to perform testing to detect COVID-19 in wastewater.

The researchers evaluated and compared sampling and analysis techniques by testing them within buildings with known numbers of positive cases. They were then able to determine wastewater testing’s strengths and limitations as a tool for monitoring COVID-19 in a building population. For example, the technique proved better at detecting initial infections than determining the number of occupants infected or how long they had been infected. 

One important answer revealed by the research: Wastewater testing can detect even small numbers of asymptomatic cases, something not previously documented.

“This work could be applied to surveillance in buildings where people live in groups, where transmission may be hard to control but the risk of spread could be high,” said Mathers, an infectious disease expert in the School of Medicine’s Department of Pathology. “Since we can identify new infections with high sensitivity, it provides an early warning signal of when to test everyone in the building to find and isolate the newly infected persons before an outbreak becomes large.”

Wastewater Testing for COVID-19

To evaluate the effectiveness of wastewater testing for detecting COVID-19, Mathers collaborated with Lisa Colosi-Peterson, PhD, an associate professor in UVA Engineering’s Department of Engineering Systems and Environment, who connected with Mathers through UVA’s Center for Engineering in Medicine. They and their colleagues monitored wastewater from two student dormitory complexes for eight weeks. They then compared their findings to the results of periodic student testing UVA had implemented to prevent COVID-19 transmission. The researchers found that the wastewater testing caught more than 96% of cases.

One limitation of wastewater testing: It could not distinguish between new infections and virus found in stool from those who had recovered and were no longer contagious. That means the wastewater testing detected both active and former cases. “The inability to distinguish recently infected but no longer contagious persons from new contagious infections within a building is an important finding, as it means that wastewater testing would be best for identifying new cases and isolating individuals in groups without recent infections,” Mathers said.

UVA’s new research also establishes useful protocols for wastewater testing. In a scientific paper outlining their findings, the researchers describe how they collected and tested the samples, noting that refrigerating the samples on ice adequately preserved them for testing that same day. Institutions that plan to send their samples elsewhere for testing, however, may need to take additional steps to preserve the samples for longer, the researchers note. Cleansers and disinfectants used in the facilities could also degrade the viral RNA over time, they caution.

While the researchers are urging further study, they conclude that wastewater testing holds great promise for detecting and controlling COVID-19 in places where people live in close quarters. “Passive pooled surveillance of wastewater is now serving as an early warning system in many dormitories, barracks and prisons to identify new cases in situations where transmission risk is high,” Mathers said. “Applications for wastewater surveillance to inform and control infectious disease transmission will continue to evolve, but it is hard to believe how far and how fast we have come in the last year.”

Findings Published

The project was a collaborative effort of UVA’s School of Medicine, School of Engineering, School of Data Science and UVA Health’s Facilities Management. The research team consisted of Colosi-Peterson, Katie E. Barry, Shireen M. Kotay, Michael D. Porter, Melinda D. Poulter, Cameron Ratliff, William Simmons, Limor I. Steinberg, D. Derek Wilson, Rena Morse, Paul Zmick and Mathers.

The researchers have published their findings in the scientific journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

The work was supported by a UVA Engineering in Medicine Seed Grant and support from the University Reopening Committee.

To keep up with the latest medical research news from UVA, subscribe to the Making of Medicine blog at http://makingofmedicine.virginia.edu.

Eyelinerz illustration by Heather Skovlund for 360 Magazine

Importance of Eye Contact

THE ALL-IMPORTANT SUBJECT OF MAINTAINING EYE CONTACT DURING VIRTUAL CONVERSATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS

Did you know that we have oxytocin receptors in our eyes? When we make eye contact with someone (researchers say about 30 seconds of maintained connection should do it), the receptors tell the brain to produce the hormone, which travels through the body, hits the internal organs, and ends in the heart. Each time the eye contact is maintained, the reaction repeats. The result? Our breath and heart rate slow down, we feel calmer, we feel… happy. Even better, research shows that this effect is achieved when we make eye contact virtually as well as in person.

The Dangers of Losing Human Connection

Connecting with others doesn’t just make us happy, it can apparently also make us better people. In one study, researchers found that individuals who felt connected to others were more likely to want to volunteer in their community or do kindness for strangers. Researchers are now trying to determine how our wellbeing and connection to others is being impacted by spending so much time distanced from our social groups.

Some studies seem grim. One extensive study out of the UK analyzed over 80 research articles on loneliness indicates that as children experience increasing levels of loneliness due to being away from school and friends, they’re at increasing risk of depression and anxiety.

But the good news is that we are getting really creative (and effective) at keeping our human connection going despite the social distancing.

Connecting Creatively

For children navigating distance learning and time away from friends, doctors from the University of Michigan encouraged parents to see this time as an opportunity to teach children new skills that focus on kindness, resilience, and flexibility, while reminding parents that children are incredibly resilient as long as they are in a supportive and loving environment.

Kids can find social connections in lots of creative ways, from Zoom playdates to video game challenges with friends’ half-way around the world.

Technology also helps adults maintain — or form — meaningful connections. More than ever, meeting online is leading to meaningful, romantic relationships despite (or maybe because of?) couples waiting longer to meet in-person. Apparently, flirting via video chat is incredibly effective, despite the fact that you’re never quite really looking each other in the eye.

We are also connecting deeper with our coworkers, as Zoom happy hours have brought socializing into our homes, making for more relaxed conversations. There’s something about seeing your colleagues sipping seltzers from their kid’s playroom that really ups the camaraderie.

Connecting Effectively

Research has shown that the key to virtual connection is the same as it is in person — eye contact. Now we just need to get better at forming that connection during video calls.

The best way to do this is to look into the camera intermittently as you would someone’s eyes when meeting in person. I know, easier said than done! Our instinct is to look at the person’s face on the screen. But one solution to make maintaining eye contact with a camera more natural is having a tool like Eyelinez around your lens. The fun designs will grab your attention and remind you to keep looking into the lens.

What Are Eyelinez?

Maintaining proper eye contact with a camera is not a new challenge.  In fact, the challenge has existed ever since anyone had to stare into a cold dark camera as if they were engaging with a smiling human.  An “eyeline” is where the speaker is looking and Eyelinez is the solution to enable you to maintain a natural and engaging eyeline with the camera.

College Student illustration by Heather Skovlund for 360 Magazine

Tutors Not Just for Kids

Tutors Are Not Just for Kids: They Help People Get Through College, Too!

Tutoring community, The Oxford Method, offers up tips to help people get through college

Many people tend to think of tutoring as being something for kids. Yet there are millions of college students who struggle and need help, too. In fact, according to EducationData.org, around 40% of undergraduate college students drop out before earning a degree. The website also reports that 30% of freshmen don’t make it to their second year of college. One of the main reasons that people drop out of college is that they struggle to keep up academically, followed by the stress, financial situations, and lack of campus connections. The good news is that there are things that can be done to help address the issues and keep on going.

“Millions of people dream of earning a degree, but when they begin struggling, they tend to leave,” explains David Florence, professor and founder of The Oxford Method, a community that offers tutoring services around the country. “The help is readily available, but many people are not aware of it. We want to change that, so we can help more people see their goals through.”

The Oxford Method is on a mission to share with the world that education is the great equalizer and an essential gift to the next generation. Its goal is to help more people stick with finishing their academic goals. Here are some tips it offers to college students to help them get through:

  • Stay organized. One of the most important things you can do is to organize your schedule. This way you won’t fall behind or feel as much stress. Use a good planner, plan ahead, make lists, set goals, and do things that will help keep you on the right path.
  • Become involved. Rather than feel that you are not connected at college, make a goal to connect. Choose at least one thing to become involved in, whether it’s a fun group, study group, club, or something else. Make the connection so you feel that you are not there struggling alone. This is especially important during this time when so many people are isolated with online education.
  • De-stress. When the stress of juggling everything becomes too much, that’s when many college students want to walk away. Make a commitment to yourself to reduce stress every week. To do this, you can take up hiking, meditation, yoga, or whatever it is that will help you to de-stress in a healthy way.
  • Get help. Those who are struggling academically should get the help they need, rather than fall behind, which will make them drop out. A tutor can help give you the one-on-one assistance you need to gain a better understanding of the subject or lesson and will help keep you on pace.
  • Be gentle on yourself. Many people get upset if they are struggling a little, and they beat themselves up over it. Learn to take things easy, go with the flow, and give yourself a break. Treat yourself how you would treat your best friend if they were in the same position.

“When you are struggling in college, it’s so important to know that there is help available,” added Florence. “No matter what subject you are having difficulties with, there’s a good chance that you can get the assistance you need and keep going. We are happy to be help college students around the nation continue meeting their educational goals.”

There’s good reason to finish college and earn the degree. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the more you learn, the more you tend to earn. Those with the highest educational attainment tend to make triple of those who just have a high school education. The average weekly earnings for someone with only a high school diploma is $712, compared to the average for someone with a bachelor’s degree being $1,173. Plus, the bureau reports that the unemployment rate is lower for those who have more higher education.

The Oxford Method has over 100 tutors around the country, covering all subject areas. They offer online tutoring, as well as in-person and in-classroom options. Their tutoring services are available 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Instructors have a minimum of a bachelor’s degree, with many of them having a master’s degree, PhD, and at least four years of teaching experience. The Oxford Method works with their nonprofit, Social Actualization, Inc., by giving them 10% of all profits. The funds are used to provide free computers, high-speed internet, and instruction to underprivileged families in urban and rural America. Plus, 40% of their instructors are PhDs, 40% have a master’s degree, and 20% have only a bachelor’s degree.

Subject areas include science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), as well as business, social studies, psychology, English, history, public speaking, study methods, test taking, and more. To get more information about The Oxford Method, visit the website.

About The Oxford Method

Started in 2020, The Oxford Method has over 100 instructors who provide access to tutoring 24/7. It also has a nonprofit sector of its community, which offers tutoring services and computers to underprivileged students. Its relationship-based education helps everyone, including those who need financial assistance and those with special needs. It donates 10% of its profits to social organizations that help those in urban areas. To get more information about The Oxford Method, visit the website.

Child Abuse × Spanking

The issue of whether spanking does or does not contribute to later aggression remains controversial despite public policy statements by the American Academy of Pediatrics and other groups opposing spanking. Studies have remained inconsistent regarding whether spanking does or does not contribute to later aggression. 

The Journal of Pediatrics published a research article by Jeff R. Temple, PhD, et al, in 2018 titled, “Childhood Corporal Punishment and Future Perpetration of Physical Dating Violence.” The results were from an adult-retrospective study and suggested that spanking and related corporal punishment could predict adult dating violence, but that actual physical child abuse exposure did not. 

New research findings published in Springer Nature’s Psychiatric Quarterly journal attempted to replicate the study by using similar methodologies.

“Child Abuse, Spanking and Adult Dating Violence: A Replication Study of Temple et al, 2018” is based on research by Chris Ferguson, PhD, professor of psychology at Stetson University.

Current results did not replicate the findings of Temple et al, 2018. Exposure to child physical abuse predicted adult dating violence, but exposure to spanking and related corporal punishment did not. These results suggest it may be premature to link spanking to aggression in adulthood.

Dr. Ferguson is an aggression, violence and violent criminal behavior expert and available to discuss his research study with the media this week. Below you will find links to Drs. Ferguson and Temple’s journal articles, discussion points and Dr. Ferguson’s faculty profile link, which includes additional information about his background, expertise and research. 

Discussion points:

  1. Whether childhood spanking does or does not contribute to later aggression in adulthood remains controversial.
  2. A prior study suggested spanking, but not actual physical abuse predicted adult dating violence.
  3. In this replication study, results did not replicate the prior study. Instead, child abuse predicted adult dating violence, but spanking did not predict adult dating violence.
  4. This replication study indicates spanking is unlikely to contribute to adult dating violence, but actual child physical abuse does.
  5. Many prior studies confuse the two and there is a need for more rigorous research in this area.

Dr. Chris Ferguson’s faculty profile:

http://www.stetson.edu/other/faculty/christopher-ferguson.php

Psychiatric Quarterly research journal article:

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11126-020-09742-5

Journal of Pediatrics research article from 2018:

http://www.researchgate.net/publication/321581264_Childhood_Corporal_Punishment_and_Future_Perpetration_of_Physical_Dating_Violence

Beethoven’s Effect on Test Results

Students Who Listened to Beethoven During Lecture — and Heard the Same Music in Dreamland — Did Better on Test Next Day

But scores on the material nine months later dropped to ‘floor level,’ Baylor University study finds

College students who listened to classical music by Beethoven and Chopin during a computer-interactive lecture on microeconomics — and heard the music again that night — did better on a test the next day than did peers who were in the same lecture, but instead slept that evening with white noise in the background.

Over the long haul — when students took a similar test nine months later — the boost did not last. Scores dropped to floor levels, with everyone failing and performance averaging less than 25% percent for both groups. However, targeting memory reactivation (TMR) may aid during deep sleep, when memories are theorized to be reactivated and moved from temporary storage in one part of the brain to more permanent storage in other parts, researchers said.

The study, supported by the National Science Foundation and conducted by Baylor’s Sleep Neuroscience and Cognition Laboratory (SNAC), is published in the journal Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.

“All educators want to teach students how to integrate concepts, not just memorize details, but that’s notoriously difficult to do,” said Michael K. Scullin, Ph.D., director of Baylor’s sleep lab and assistant professor of psychology and neuroscience. “What we found was that by experimentally priming these concepts during sleep, we increased performance on integration questions by 18% on the test the next day. What student wouldn’t want a boost or two to their letter grade? The effects were particularly enhanced in participants who showed heightened frontal lobe activity in the brain during slow wave sleep, which is deep sleep.”

He noted that the effects emerged when using gold standard procedures: neither participants nor experimenters knew who received a particular treatment, sleep was measured using EEG in a laboratory setting, and the learning materials matched those that would actually be used in a college classroom, in this case an undergraduate microeconomics lecture.

Poor sleep is widespread in college students, with 60 percent habitually sleeping fewer than the recommended seven hours on 50 to 65 percent of nights. While students may be more concerned about immediate test results — and TMR may help them cram for an exam — learning by rote (item memory) does not normally benefit grasping and retaining a concept.

For the study, researchers recruited 50 college students ages 18 to 33 for a learning task with a self-paced, computer-interactive lecture; and for two overnight polysomnography sessions, with the first night an adaptation to the lab and screening for sleep disorders, and the second done the evening of the lecture.

During the lecture, soft background selections were played from a computer: the first movement of Beethoven’s “Moonlight” Piano Sonata, the first movement of Vivaldi’s “Spring” Violin Concerto and Chopin’s Nocturne in E-flat major, Op. 9, No. 2.

That night in Baylor’s sleep lab, research personnel applied electrodes and used computers to monitor sleep patterns of both test and control groups. Once technicians observed a person was in deep sleep, they played either the classical music or the white noise — depending on whether the individual was in the test or control group — for about 15 minutes.

“Deep slow wave sleep won’t last super long before shifting back to light sleep, so we couldn’t play them endlessly,” Scullin said. “If we played it during light sleep, the music probably would have awoken participants. The first slow wave cycle is the deepest and longest.”

The music choice was important, researchers said.

“We ruled out jazz because it’s too sporadic and would probably cause people to wake,” Scullin said. “We ruled out popular music because lyrical music disrupts initial studying. You can’t read words and sing lyrics — just try it. We also ruled out ocean waves and ambient music because it’s very easy to ignore. You’re going to have a heck of a time forming a strong association between some learning material and a bland song or ambient noise.

“That left us with classical music, which many students already listen to while studying,” he said. “The songs can be very distinctive and therefore pair well with learning material.”

In the microeconomics exam the next day, the TMR of classical music more than doubled the likelihood of passing the test when compared with the control condition of white noise.

Scullin cautioned against confusing the Baylor study’s findings with the so-called “Mozart Effect” — the finding that having students listen to Mozart pieces led to better scores on intelligence tests. Subsequent tests of the “Mozart Effect” found that it either did not replicate or that boosts were strictly due to increased arousal when listening to energetic music.

“Mozart doesn’t make memories,” Scullin said.

Previous researchers have found that memories associated with sensory cues — such as an odor or song — are re-activated when the same cue is received later. When that happens during deep sleep, the corresponding memories are activated and strengthened, said co-researcher Chenlu Gao, a doctoral candidate of psychology and neuroscience at Baylor.

Early experimenters also played audio tapes during sleep to test whether individuals can learn new knowledge while sleeping. But while those experiments failed to create new memories, “our study suggests it is possible to reactivate and strengthen existing memories of lecture materials during sleep,” Gao said. “Our next step is to implement this technique in classrooms — or in online lectures while students complete their education at home due to COVID-19 social distancing measures — so we can help college students ‘re-study’ their class materials during sleep.”

“We think it is possible there could be long-term benefits of using TMR but that you might have to repeat the music across multiple nights,” Scullin added. “After all, you wouldn’t just study material a single time and then expect to remember it months later for a final exam. The best learning is repeated at spaced-out intervals — and, of course, while maintaining good sleep habits.”

*The study was supported by the National Science Foundation. Paul Fillmore, assistant professor of communication sciences and disorders in Baylor’s Robbins College of Health and Human Sciences, also was a co-researcher.

ABOUT BAYLOR UNIVERSITY

Baylor University is a private Christian University and a nationally ranked research institution. The University provides a vibrant campus community for more than 18,000 students by blending interdisciplinary research with an international reputation for educational excellence and a faculty commitment to teaching and scholarship. Chartered in 1845 by the Republic of Texas through the efforts of Baptist pioneers, Baylor is the oldest continually operating University in Texas. Located in Waco, Baylor welcomes students from all 50 states and more than 90 countries to study a broad range of degrees among its 12 nationally recognized academic divisions.

ABOUT THE COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES AT BAYLOR UNIVERSITY

The College of Arts & Sciences is Baylor University’s oldest and largest academic division, consisting of 25 academic departments and seven academic centers and institutes. The more than 5,000 courses taught in the College span topics from art and theatre to religion, philosophy, sociology and the natural sciences. Faculty conduct research around the world, and research on the undergraduate and graduate level is prevalent throughout all disciplines. Visit www.baylor.edu/artsandsciences.

ABOUT THE SLEEP NEUROSCIENCE AND COGNITION LABORATORY

The goal of the Sleep Neuroscience and Cognition Laboratory at Baylor University is to understand the basic processes supporting cognition and to translate that knowledge to promote health and flourishing across the adult lifespan. The two lines of inquiry focus on the sleep-based underpinnings of health and cognitive flourishing; and how technology can be leveraged to support prospective memory and quality of life in persons with Alzheimer’s disease and their caregivers.

 

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U.S. Cities x Speeding Problems

U.S. Cities with the Worst Speeding Problem + Fatality Rates

Data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) shows that despite the risks, approximately 70 percent of American drivers report speeding at least some of the time. Each year, speeding kills about 10,000 people and is responsible for nearly 30 percent of all motor vehicle deaths in the U.S.

Fortunately, since 2005, the speeding-related fatal accident rate has decreased nationwide by about 34 percent, from 4.2 to 2.7 per 100,000 people in 2017. While speeding-related deaths among adult drivers declined slightly during that time, those among teenagers fell dramatically.

Between 2005 and 2017, the number of speeding-related fatalities per 100,000 teenagers dropped from 13.2 to 5.8—results that experts partially attribute to increased seatbelt use and decreased drinking and driving.

The CDC Reports that since 2005, the proportion of teens who reported not wearing a seatbelt was cut in half. Similarly, the share of teens who reported riding with a drunk driver fell by 42 percent.

Despite improvements to the speeding fatality rate at the national level, there is significant regional variation. To determine which cities suffer the most from speeding-related fatalities, our researchers at Compare Auto Insurance analyzed data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System for the period 2013-2017.

They found that speeding tends to account for a higher percentage of traffic fatalities in the Southeast and Midwest. Additionally, four of the worst 15 cities for speeding are located in California. These are the cities where speeding problems are the worst.

#15 – Charlotte, North Carolina
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 40.6%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 3.8 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 159
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 392

#14 – Stockton, California
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 40.7%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 3.6 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 55
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 135

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#13 – Chula Vista, California
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 41.7%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 1.9 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 25
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 60

#12 – Yonkers, New York
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 42.1%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 1.6 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 16
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 38

#11 – Fresno, California
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 42.6%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 2.8 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 72
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 169

#10 – Aurora, Colorado
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 42.9%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 2.9 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 51
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 119

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#9 – Chicago, Illinois
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 43.4%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 2.0 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 278
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 640

#8 – Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 47.3%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 4.4 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 131
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 277

#7 – Saint Louis, Missouri
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 48.6%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 7.7 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 121
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 249

#6 – Washington, District Of Columbia
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 49.2%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 1.8 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 61
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 124

#5 – Plano, Texas
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 49.2%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 2.2 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 31
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 63

#4 – Fontana, California
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 50.7%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 3.5 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 36
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 71

#3 – Cleveland, Ohio
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 51.9%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 4.8 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 94
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 181

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#2 – Irving, Texas
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 52.2%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 4.1 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 48
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 92

#1 – North Las Vegas, Nevada
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 53.9%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 3.5 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 41
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 76

Methodology & Detailed Findings
Fatality statistics were obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System for the period 2013-2017. City and state population statistics were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey.

The following definitions were used in categorizing accidents by location in order to simplify interpretations:

-Freeway = Interstate + Non-Interstate Freeway + Expressway
-Major highway = Non-Interstate Other Principal Arterial
-Minor highway = Non-Interstate Minor Arterial
-Primary street = Collector + Local

Fatalities per 100k residents were calculated as the sum of fatalities for 2013-2017 divided by the sum of the populations for the same years, multiplied by 100,000. Only cities with at least 200,000 residents and more than one speeding-related fatality were included in the analysis.

Cities were ranked according to the percentage of all motor vehicle fatalities that had at least one vehicle speeding prior to the accident. In the event of a tie, cities with higher speeding-related fatality rates were ranked higher.

Location is not the only factor that influences the likelihood of fatal crashes due to speeding.

The rate of speeding-related fatalities also differs by demographics. About 75 percent of drivers involved in speeding-related fatal accidents are male, regardless of age. According to the IIHS, men usually drive more miles than women and are also more likely to engage in other risky driving behaviors such as not using seatbelts and driving under the influence of alcohol, which all contribute to higher fatality rates.

While speeding-related fatality rates vary across cities, rural roads, in general, have significantly higher rates of fatalities caused by speeding when compared to urban roads. Even though rural roads only account for about 30 percent of miles traveled in the U.S., they represent about 50 percent of speeding-related fatalities.

Historically, rural roads have had higher posted speed limits, which correlate to higher rates of speeding and higher fatality rates. Compared to urban roads, rural roads also have a higher incidence of rollover crashes, which can be caused by speeding. Furthermore, rural drivers might have less access to prompt medical attention after an accident, which increases the likelihood of death after injury.

Speed kills, but the recent decreases in speeding-related fatalities are promising. To equip law enforcement with the tools they need to reduce speeding on the road, the NHTSA works with local jurisdictions around the country to provide training in enforcing traffic laws.

Some of the methods that law enforcement officers use to detect speeding include radar, laser devices, VASCAR, and speed cameras.

Additionally, certain cities like Boston have experimented with lowering speed limits to reduce speed-related accidents.

Furthermore, some automakers have installed intelligent speed assistance (ISA) systems within cars to help drivers better monitor their own speed, and some auto insurance companies offer discounts for drivers who slow down. Tackling the speeding problem will require continued efforts from individuals, industry, law enforcement, and legislators.