Posts tagged with "sociology"

Bisexual adults less likely to enjoy health benefits of education

Education has long been linked to health — the more schooling people have, the healthier they are likely to be. But a new study from Rice University sociologists found that the health benefits of a good education are less evident among well-educated bisexual adults.

“Education and health: The joint role of gender and sexual identity” examines health among straight, bisexual, gay and lesbian adults with various educational backgrounds. Authors Zhe Zhang, a postdoctoral research fellow at Rice, Bridget Gorman, a professor of sociology at Rice, and Alexa Solazzo, a postdoctoral research fellow at the Harvard University T.H. Chan School of Public Health, were particularly interested in bisexual adults, since they may experience distinctive health vulnerabilities.

The researchers found that while having at least a bachelor’s degree was linked to better health among bisexual adults, they received less benefit than heterosexual and gay or lesbian adults with similar education. This effect was especially true for bisexual women.

“The health benefits of education are well established — so much so that anything we do to promote and improve public education should really be viewed as health policy,” Gorman said. “It’s that impactful on health and well-being. That our analysis showed less health benefit associated with education among bisexual adults compared to heterosexual, gay and lesbian adults is concerning.”

While the researchers could not pinpoint the exact cause, they theorized the problem might be social stigma and additional anxiety among women due to gender discrimination, Zhang said.

“Discrimination of any kind can take a heavy toll on health,” Zhang said. “While we cannot say with certainty that is what is happening in this study, it’s a very real possibility.”

The authors based their study on data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which included a sample of more than 1.2 million adults living in 44 U.S. states and territories from 2011-2017. They hope the study will raise awareness of the issue and help health professionals provide better care.

The research was partially supported by a grant from the National Cancer Institute. The article is available online at https://bit.ly/3iJdNY0 and it will be published in the December 2020 edition of the journal SSM-Population Health.

This news release can be found online at news.rice.edu.

Follow Rice News and Media Relations on Twitter @RiceUNews.

360 Magazine

W.E.B Du Bois Book

W.E.B. Du Bois spent many decades fighting to ensure that African Americans could claim their place as full citizens and thereby fulfill the deeply compromised ideals of American democracy. Yet he died in Africa, having apparently given up on the United States.

In this tour-de-force, Elvira Basevich examines this paradox by tracing the development of his life and thought and the relevance of his legacy to our troubled age. She adroitly analyzes the main concepts that inform Du Bois’ critique of American democracy, such as the color line and double consciousness, before examining how these concepts might inform our understanding of contemporary struggles, from Black Lives Matter to the campaign for reparations for slavery. She stresses the continuity in Du Bois’ thought, from his early writings to his later embrace of self-segregation and Pan-Africanism, while not shying away from assessing the challenging implications of his later work.

This wonderful book vindicates the power of Du Bois’ thought to help transform a stubbornly unjust world. It is essential reading for racial justice activists as well as students of African American philosophy and political thought.

The Author:

Elvira Basevich is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at University of Massachusetts, Lowell.

Reviews:

“Unique among books on Du Bois, Basevich originally and persuasively presents a liberal ideal of civic enfranchisement as the heart of Du Bois’ thought.”

Chike Jeffers, Dalhousie University

“A valuable and compelling addition to the literature on Du Bois. Both a useful introduction to those unfamiliar with his thought and an innovative interpretation that will hold the interest of experts, Basevich has achieved a remarkable feat—and produced an apt tribute to her subject.”

I’ll Benjamin McKean, Ohio State University

road, uber, car, traffic, illustration, car-sharing,

U.S. Cities x Speeding Problems

U.S. Cities with the Worst Speeding Problem + Fatality Rates

Data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) shows that despite the risks, approximately 70 percent of American drivers report speeding at least some of the time. Each year, speeding kills about 10,000 people and is responsible for nearly 30 percent of all motor vehicle deaths in the U.S.

Fortunately, since 2005, the speeding-related fatal accident rate has decreased nationwide by about 34 percent, from 4.2 to 2.7 per 100,000 people in 2017. While speeding-related deaths among adult drivers declined slightly during that time, those among teenagers fell dramatically.

Between 2005 and 2017, the number of speeding-related fatalities per 100,000 teenagers dropped from 13.2 to 5.8—results that experts partially attribute to increased seatbelt use and decreased drinking and driving.

The CDC Reports that since 2005, the proportion of teens who reported not wearing a seatbelt was cut in half. Similarly, the share of teens who reported riding with a drunk driver fell by 42 percent.

Despite improvements to the speeding fatality rate at the national level, there is significant regional variation. To determine which cities suffer the most from speeding-related fatalities, our researchers at Compare Auto Insurance analyzed data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System for the period 2013-2017.

They found that speeding tends to account for a higher percentage of traffic fatalities in the Southeast and Midwest. Additionally, four of the worst 15 cities for speeding are located in California. These are the cities where speeding problems are the worst.

#15 – Charlotte, North Carolina
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 40.6%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 3.8 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 159
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 392

#14 – Stockton, California
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 40.7%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 3.6 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 55
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 135

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#13 – Chula Vista, California
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 41.7%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 1.9 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 25
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 60

#12 – Yonkers, New York
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 42.1%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 1.6 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 16
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 38

#11 – Fresno, California
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 42.6%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 2.8 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 72
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 169

#10 – Aurora, Colorado
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 42.9%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 2.9 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 51
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 119

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#9 – Chicago, Illinois
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 43.4%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 2.0 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 278
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 640

#8 – Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 47.3%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 4.4 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 131
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 277

#7 – Saint Louis, Missouri
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 48.6%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 7.7 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 121
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 249

#6 – Washington, District Of Columbia
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 49.2%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 1.8 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 61
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 124

#5 – Plano, Texas
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 49.2%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 2.2 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 31
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 63

#4 – Fontana, California
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 50.7%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 3.5 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 36
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 71

#3 – Cleveland, Ohio
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 51.9%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 4.8 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 94
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 181

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#2 – Irving, Texas
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 52.2%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 4.1 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 48
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 92

#1 – North Las Vegas, Nevada
Share of all traffic fatalities involving speeding (2013-2017): 53.9%
Annual speeding-related fatality rate (2013-2017): 3.5 per 100k
Total speeding-related fatalities (2013-2017): 41
Total traffic fatalities (2013-2017): 76

Methodology & Detailed Findings
Fatality statistics were obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System for the period 2013-2017. City and state population statistics were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey.

The following definitions were used in categorizing accidents by location in order to simplify interpretations:

-Freeway = Interstate + Non-Interstate Freeway + Expressway
-Major highway = Non-Interstate Other Principal Arterial
-Minor highway = Non-Interstate Minor Arterial
-Primary street = Collector + Local

Fatalities per 100k residents were calculated as the sum of fatalities for 2013-2017 divided by the sum of the populations for the same years, multiplied by 100,000. Only cities with at least 200,000 residents and more than one speeding-related fatality were included in the analysis.

Cities were ranked according to the percentage of all motor vehicle fatalities that had at least one vehicle speeding prior to the accident. In the event of a tie, cities with higher speeding-related fatality rates were ranked higher.

Location is not the only factor that influences the likelihood of fatal crashes due to speeding.

The rate of speeding-related fatalities also differs by demographics. About 75 percent of drivers involved in speeding-related fatal accidents are male, regardless of age. According to the IIHS, men usually drive more miles than women and are also more likely to engage in other risky driving behaviors such as not using seatbelts and driving under the influence of alcohol, which all contribute to higher fatality rates.

While speeding-related fatality rates vary across cities, rural roads, in general, have significantly higher rates of fatalities caused by speeding when compared to urban roads. Even though rural roads only account for about 30 percent of miles traveled in the U.S., they represent about 50 percent of speeding-related fatalities.

Historically, rural roads have had higher posted speed limits, which correlate to higher rates of speeding and higher fatality rates. Compared to urban roads, rural roads also have a higher incidence of rollover crashes, which can be caused by speeding. Furthermore, rural drivers might have less access to prompt medical attention after an accident, which increases the likelihood of death after injury.

Speed kills, but the recent decreases in speeding-related fatalities are promising. To equip law enforcement with the tools they need to reduce speeding on the road, the NHTSA works with local jurisdictions around the country to provide training in enforcing traffic laws.

Some of the methods that law enforcement officers use to detect speeding include radar, laser devices, VASCAR, and speed cameras.

Additionally, certain cities like Boston have experimented with lowering speed limits to reduce speed-related accidents.

Furthermore, some automakers have installed intelligent speed assistance (ISA) systems within cars to help drivers better monitor their own speed, and some auto insurance companies offer discounts for drivers who slow down. Tackling the speeding problem will require continued efforts from individuals, industry, law enforcement, and legislators.

Claude Lévi-Strauss Biography

Academic, writer, figure of melancholy, aesthete – Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-2009) not only transformed his academic discipline, he also profoundly changed the way that we view ourselves and the world around us.

In this award-winning biography, historian Emmanuelle Loyer recounts Lévi-Strauss’s childhood in an assimilated Jewish household, his promising student years as well as his first forays into political and intellectual movements. As a young professor in 1935 Lévi-Strauss left Paris for São Paulo to teach sociology. His rugged expeditions into the Brazilian hinterland, where he discovered the Amerindian Other, made him into an anthropologist. The racial laws of the Vichy regime would force him to leave France yet again — this time for the US in 1941, where he became Professor Claude L. Strauss, to avoid confusion with the jeans manufacturer.

His return to France, after the war, ushered in the period during which he produced his greatest works: several decades of intense labour in which Lévi-Strauss reinvented anthropology, establishing it as a discipline that offered a new view on the world. In 1955, Tristes Tropiques offered indisputable proof of this the world over. During those years, Lévi-Strauss became something of a national monument, a celebrity intellectual in France. But he always claimed his perspective was a “view from afar,” enabling him to deliver incisive and subversive diagnoses of our waning modernity.

Loyer’s outstanding biography tells the story of a true intellectual adventurer whose unforgettable voice invites us to rethink questions of the human and the meaning of progress. Lévi-Strauss was less of a modern than he was our own great and disquieted contemporary.

The Author

Emmanuelle Loyer is Professor of Contemporary History at Sciences-Po, Paris. Her biography of Lévi-Strauss was awarded the Prix Femina essai in 2015.

Reviews

“The inspiration that continues to spring forth from the work of Lévi-Strauss is a mystery to many anthropologists. He has told us of the many influences on his work and commentators have argued for yet others but they don’t really account for his extraordinary originality and independence. Emmanuelle Loyer’s thorough account of his life and work may help us resolve this wonderful puzzle.”  – Maurice Bloch, London School of Economics

“Emmanuelle Loyer has produced a meticulously-researched, intelligent, and sensitive biography worthy of her subject, one of the greatest Francophone intellectuals of the 20th century. Critical yet generous, her portrait of Claude Lévi-Strauss rings true and comes alive on the page.” – Michael Harkin, University of Wyoming