Posts tagged with "symptoms"

How Sleep Apnea Affects Mental Health and What You Can Do About It

You might not know that you have sleep apnea. However, your partner can probably tell. 

This rule holds even if they don’t kick you during the night to get you to stop snoring. The sleep disturbances caused by this disorder can impact your mood, turning normally pleasant people into snarling grumps. Here’s how sleep apnea affects mental health and what you can do about it. 

1. It Makes You Edgier 

Do you find yourself snapping at your spouse or children when they ask you an innocent question? Undiagnosed sleep apnea can make you irritable and edgy. 

Research shows that sleep-deprived individuals report an increase in negative emotions like anger and a decrease in positive ones. Further complicating the issue is how mood disorders such as mild depression can often disrupt sleep patterns. The combination results in a vicious cycle, with sleeplessness increasing depressive symptoms that only spur further insomnia. 

Talk to your doctor if possible. While you don’t want to rely on prescription sleep aids, a short-term course can help you reset your cycles. Over-the-counter aids such as Benadryl also assist some in getting their Zzz’s. A doctor can also help by informing you of what other treatment options exist outside of medication. Many people report holistic methods work well for them. Whatever the case, your mood should improve once you get sufficient rest.

2. It Disrupts Focus 

Remember the last time your alarm didn’t wake you up in time for work in the morning? Chances are, you felt “off” the remainder of the day. 

Sleep apnea causes you to stop breathing multiple times while you sleep. You might not remember waking up from this phenomenon — but your body absorbs the effects as if you tossed and turned all night. The impact on your cognitive abilities remains the same. 

You might not even know if you have the disorder. Approximately 80% of those with severe to moderate sleep apnea remain undiagnosed. The process involves undergoing a sleep study, which isn’t without complicating factors. Many folks find it challenging to sleep with wires taped hither and yon, leading to many inconclusive and false-negative results. 

However, you might feel the effects in the workplace. Many people with sleep apnea report feeling tired all day despite getting what they thought was a full night of sleep. Pay close attention to the way you feel throughout the day at work and elsewhere. If you find that your normally detail-oriented self starts missing zeroes on budget reports, talk to your doctor.

3. It Could Spur Compulsive Overeating 

Your body contains two stress hormones, adrenaline and cortisol. Adrenaline spurs your initial fight-or-flight response, and cortisol takes over when stress becomes long-term, preparing your body for a prolonged onslaught. The problem is, you can’t escape modern stressors like unpaid debt the way early humans outran hungry lions. 

As a result, excess cortisol production prepares you for physical exertion that never comes. This hormone makes you crave foods high in fat and calories for lasting energy — but you never burn it off. The result is unwanted pounds that stress you out even more. 

4. It Can Cause Drowsy Driving 

Did you know that remaining awake for more than 18 hours impairs your driving ability as much as a blood alcohol content of 0.05%? That’s right — drowsy driving is as dangerous as taking the wheel when intoxicated.

Your youth and good health won’t protect you from an auto accident. A wreck causing ongoing health issues, such as those resulting in traumatic brain injury (TBI), can cause severe financial hardship, given the lack of single-payer coverage in the United States. You could find yourself out of a job at a time when you need your employer-sponsored health insurance more than ever and end up buried in medical debt. 

Pay attention if you notice that you frequently arrive at home or work with little recollection of how you got there other than knowing you must have driven. Everyone zones out behind the wheel occasionally, but you should call your doctor if it happens all the time. 

5. It Can Impact Your Close Relationships 

Even if you can blame your irritable mood on sleep apnea and the resulting disruption, knowing the reason doesn’t spare your family the grief of living with a grump. If left untreated, the associated behavioral changes could damage your closest relationships. 

Therefore, if you won’t seek help for yourself, do so for the people you love. Living with or even just having a close with relationship with someone who is moody and down all the time can really take a toll on your friends and family, especially if they are trying their best to help you and be supportive but are met with hostility. This kind of dynamic can eventually lead to people distancing themselves from you.

You’ll likely discover that you will personally feel happier than ever too once you address the underlying cause of your irritability. You might even live longer — loneliness increases all-cause mortality. 

Methods of Treating Sleep Apnea 

What should you expect when you speak with your doctor? You have several treatment options to explore: 

  • CPAP: A CPAP machine is the gold standard in treating diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea. It forces your airway open, making breathing possible. If you have health insurance, your carrier will probably cover the cost of your device, minus any copays and deductibles. 
  • Surgery: Some people can’t tolerate the mask that the CPAP device requires. In such cases, doctors may perform surgery to remove excess tissue from your soft palate and stabilize your upper airway. 
  • Holistic Methods: Many people find that shedding excess weight helps improve sleep apnea symptoms. Elevating your head on numerous pillows can keep tissue from blocking your airways and disrupting your slumber. 

Sleep Apnea Can Affect Mental Health — Talk to a Doctor if You’re Suffering

Sleep apnea can adversely impact your mental health. Please talk to your doctor about your treatment options so you can feel better. 

Eating disorder illustration by Heather Skovlund for 360 Magazine

Eating Disorders × Covid-19

Eating Disorders and Covid-19

More than 30 million people in the U.S. suffer from eating disorders

COVID-19 can be a nightmare for thembecause of the following triggers:

  • Empty grocery shelves
  • Feelings of uncertainty and loss of control
  • Social media messages about avoiding the “Quarantine 15” pound weight gain are especially harmful to those with existing eating disorders.

A recent study conducted by the International Journal for Eating Disorders found that symptoms worsened across the board for people with anorexia, bulimia and binge-eating disorders nationwide since the lockdowns in March. Among respondents, 62% of people with anorexia have experienced more severe restriction and food fear during the pandemic, while 30% of those with bulimia and binge-eating disorder reported experiencing more binge-eating episodes, and a greater urge to binge.

Some of the facts about eating disorders are sobering:

  • 9% of the US population will suffer from an eating disorder in their lifetime
  • Almost 1% of us suffer from anorexia nervosa
  • Between 2-3% of us have bulimia nervosa
  • Binge eating disorder (BED) is experienced by between 2-3% of us
  • 10% of those with eating disorders lose their lives as a result
  • Eating disorders are second only to opioid overdose as the deadliest mental illnesses
  • About 26% of people with eating disorders attempt suicide

Eating Recovery Center is the nation’s largest eating disorder treatment center (with offices around the country, & virtual treatment options).  Eating Recovery Center provides comprehensive treatment for anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder, and other unspecified eating disorders.

Male Pattern Baldness article illustrated by Kaelen Felix for 360 MAGAZINE

Everything You Need To Know About Male Pattern Baldness

The average person loses anywhere from 50 to 100 hairs a day—it’s part of the natural hair cycle and won’t make a difference on the scalp.

It only becomes a problem when there isn’t new hair to replace the ones that you’ve lost. A medical condition, it can be caused by a number of things from medications to hormonal changes.

Genetics can play a role as well. If anything, that’s what causes androgenic alopecia aka male pattern baldness.

Think you might have it? Want to know what some of the possible treatments are? If so, be sure to read the rest of the post!

What Is Male Pattern Baldness?

Male pattern baldness is a condition that causes loss of hair in men. In the United States, it affects nearly 50 million individuals. In fact, it’s said that more than half of all men will experience it to some extent by the age of 50.

And while it doesn’t pose any health threats, it can be psychologically distressing.

What Causes Male Pattern Baldness? 

Male pattern baldness has to do with the male sex hormones aka androgens. More specifically, they have an effect on the hair growth cycle. Instead of producing new strands to replace the ones that have fallen out, the hair follicle shrinks.

Over time, this leads to baldness.

While the condition is often inherited, it can also be caused by other things such as medications and certain cancers. In cases like that, it’s often accompanied by a rash or peeling of the scalp.

Who’s At Risk?

When do men start balding? It depends, but male pattern baldness typically occurs when an individual is in his 30s or 40s (the likelihood increases with age). With that said, it can also happen during the teen years after puberty. 

Since it’s genetic, those with a family history of the condition are also at a higher risk of developing the condition. This is especially true if it runs on the material side of the family.

Common Symptoms 

Male pattern baldness shows up in a telltale shape. That is, it often starts as a receding hairline with thinning strands around the hair.

Over time, it’ll continue to move backward, forming an “M” shape. Eventually, as the hair becomes shorter and finer, it’ll create a horseshoe pattern with hair on the sides of the head.

Depending on the severity, the hairline may continue to recede until all of the strands are gone.

Treating Male Pattern Baldness 

Unfortunately, there’s no cure for male pattern baldness. Having said that, there are treatments available for those who’d like to improve their appearance. 

Medications

There are a couple of medications that can help with the condition, one of which includes a topical lotion or foam. Available over-the-counter, it works best on the crown of the head.

Keep in mind, however, that it can take several months for you to see results. Also, the medication must be used indefinitely to preserve the effects.

And while it’s typically well-tolerated, it can cause side effects such as itching, irritation, or swelling of the skin.

In addition to that, there’s a prescription medication that you can take orally. Put it simply, it prevents DHT, a male hormone, from shrinking the hair follicles on the scalp. In doing so, it can slow the progression of baldness.

As with the lotion, however, the effects will be reversed if the pill is stopped.

Wigs 

Wigs can be used to cover receding hairlines, thinning hair, or complete baldness. The best part is that they come in a variety of colors and styles so that you can choose the one that’s right for you.

You can also work with a professional wig stylist for a more natural look.

Hair Weaves 

Weaves are basically wigs that are sewn into your hair. There’s just one thing—you must have enough hair for them to work with.

Unlike wigs, which can easily come off, weaves will always stay on, even if you’re running or swimming. However, they must be sewn again whenever new hair growth occurs.

Hair Transplants 

A hair transplant is the most invasive option and because of this, it’s often considered to be the last resort. How does it work?

A doctor will remove hair from areas of the scalp that still have active growth and transplant them to balding areas. Generally speaking, multiple treatments will be necessary.

Common side effects include numbness on the treated areas of the scalp, swelling, and scarring. The new hair may also appear less dense over time depending on the density of follicles in the transplanted area.

Is Male Pattern Baldness Preventable?

Currently, there’s no known way to prevent the condition. With that said, some researchers believe that it may help to reduce stress. Ultimately, this has to do with the fact that stress can contribute to hair loss by increasing sex hormones.

Given that, you may want to participate in relaxing activities such as walking or listening to soothing music.

Understanding Male Pattern Baldness 

Now you know all about male pattern baldness. As you can see, it can be caused by various things from medications to genetics. Fortunately, there are ways to treat the condition. When in doubt, consult with your primary care doctor!

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Doctor illustration

Nurse Hospitalized Despite Negative COVID Test

By Eamonn Burke

Heather Valentine, a 24 year old ICU nurse in Houston, is now in the ICU with a case of the novel coronavirus. After noticing heightened exhaustion during her shifts and later a fever and cough, she got an antibody test. She came back negative, but according to the CDC these tests can be wrong around 50% of the time. A viral test for COVID, taken the next day, also came back negative. Her doctor, however, asked her to come in for a CT scan, and based on these results he was certain that she had the illness.

Initially skeptical that she had the virus, Valentine now spreads an important message. “You never think it’s going to happen to you, but I’m a perfect example,” she said. “Take every precaution, wear a mask, don’t go out if you don’t have to, it’s not worth it.”

This comes as Texas sees one of the worst bouts of COVID-19 in the world, seeing new records in cases daily. The hospitals are overrun and running out of supplies, as are many others across the country with the recent surge of the coronavirus across the nation.

Ways to cope with multiple sclerosis

Being diagnosed with multiple sclerosis can come as a shock to some but a relief to finally receive answers for others. MS is a chronic disease where the central nervous system is greatly affected. No two people share the exact same symptoms, and these can come and go. Some people have regular attacks, while others constantly suffer for extended periods of time. Continue reading for suggestions on how to cope with specific MS symptoms.

Blurred Vision

Blurred vision can be a very frustrating symptom as it affects most of your day to day living. Resting your eyes can reduce the strain, so ensuring you have regular breaks throughout the day and get plenty of sleep will help. Furthermore, avoiding too much screen time will help. That means that working long hours on a computer is not helpful and staring at your phone should be kept to a minimum.

Loss of balance and poor coordination

Loss of balance and poor coordination can be incredibly debilitating as it stops you from completing many tasks you probably have taken for granted most of your life. Things such as getting out of bed, standing up and climbing stairs all of a sudden seem to become almost impossible and carry the risk of injury. Risk reduction is the major thing to support you in coping with this new-found issue. Avoid carrying out any sort of activity in the dark as that strains your body more and adds further risk. Sensible shoes are a must, so choose ones with a low heel or even walking shoes. Walking with a stick can help too. 

Extreme fatigue

Extreme fatigue will come and go with MS. One day, you may feel able to conquer the world and the next, you may find merely walking to the bathroom a challenge. Prioritizing tasks is really important when it comes to your fatigue. Reserve your energy for the most critical activities. If you do feel able to engage in some of your usual activities, try to make them less strenuous to enable you to complete more. Exercise is still important, so short walks, for example, could be incorporated into your daily routine. If you are able to, take little naps during the day to perk you up somewhat. Limiting your caffeine intake may also help. 

Muscle spasms and spasticity

There are many different types of treatment and medication available to help ease the pain caused by muscle spasms and spasticity. It is always recommended that you speak with your consultant to ensure the best course of action is being followed. Some people also ultimately choose to use cannabis for medicinal purposes from somewhere like The Green Solution, who will be able to give advice on the best product to use. Physiotherapists will be able to offer a program of exercises to ensure you are able to get the most out of your day with posture and seating positions being most important. Movement is essential to ensure you continue to be as flexible as possible.

6 Therapies To Alleviate Pain Linked To Diabetes And Other Health Issues

The complications associated with diabetes are many, and chronic pain is common for many who suffer from the disease – especially back pain.

Most adults experience back pain at some point in their lives, and almost half suffer neck pain. Usually, an injury or other musculoskeletal issue is associated with either affliction, although on occasion a disease may be linked to the problem as well.

Just as an example of the latter, researchers at the University of Sydney recently found that diabetics are at significantly higher risk of lower back pain and neck pain. While the report couldn’t establish a causal relationship between type 2 diabetes and back or neck pain, the research team pointed to preventable problems, such as obesity and lack of exercise, as contributing factors.

But whatever the source of any neck or back problem, finding that underlying cause is key to developing a treatment program that can both alleviate the pain and act as a form of prevention, says Dr. Bradford Butler, a chiropractor and author of The Blueprint for Back Pain Relief: The Essential Guide to Nonsurgical Solutions (www.drbradfordbutler.com).

“Most patients have a combination of problems causing their pain,” Butler says. “It’s very rare that just one thing needs to be treated.

“It doesn’t make sense to treat just the symptoms and not fix what is causing them. Many people, however, aren’t getting the correct therapy, so to them it’s no longer fixable. But it is – as well as preventable in the future with the right therapy.”

Butler has tips on treatments that can heal neck and back pain:

  • Acupuncture. Like chiropractic, acupuncture is a mystery to many people. “Its roots are deep in health and healing, and not in back pain alone,” Butler says. “More and more medical research is showing how incredibly effective it can be. Some studies show that it’s more effective than pain medications, and acupuncture produces actual results – it doesn’t just mask the symptoms.”
  • Chiropractic care. This a popular way to solve joint problems associated with almost all back and neck problems. “A spinal adjustment is the safest and most effective way to mobilize the joints,” Butler says. “Flexibility and range of motion of the affected segments is increased, disc circulation is improved and nerves function better.”
  • Massage therapy. “Massage is a powerful healing tool,” Butler says. “It helps to treat pain, inflammation, and spasm associated with back pain of all levels.” A highly trained massage therapist aids in breaking down scar tissue and increasing blood flow to the affected area, which accelerates healing while aiding the body in lymphatic drainage.
  • Neuromuscular reeducation. There are two different types of muscles that control the spine: voluntary and involuntary. “Voluntary muscles control global movements of your entire spine or region, movements such as bending and turning,” Butler says. “Involuntary muscles are controlled directly by the brain and central nervous system. Neuromuscular reeducation uses specific exercises and movements to stimulate your brain to retrain these involuntary muscles and make a better connection.”
  • Physical therapy. “Physical therapy helps increase range of motion, strengthens the spine against injury, and improves posture and gait,” Butler says. “Some people think about physical therapy only as it pertains to post-injury, post-surgical recovery, but it’s also critical to longevity.”
  • Spinal decompression. “This therapy has been a game-changer in the treatment of patients with back pain who have degenerated, bulging, or herniated discs,” Butler says. “It’s the most advanced nonsurgical treatment for discs. It can be used for discs in the neck or lower back.”

“Singular treatments rarely work,” Butler says. “A properly designed plan should include multiple therapies for most people if the goal is to fix the problem.”

CBD is the Alternative

Multiple sclerosis, known as MS, is an unpredictable and often disabling disease that disrupts the flow of information between the brain and body. According to the National MS Society, more than 2.3 million people are affected by MS worldwide.

Celeste Miranda, CEO and founder of CBD Expo Tour and MACE Media Group, was diagnosed at 40 years old with MS and sought out CBD as a natural healing remedy. Celeste is the woman changing how the world views cannabis products and is on a mission to educate the public on the power of CBD. For Celeste, her experience with CBD and struggle with MS is a personal one. She believes that CBD is not a last result but should be the first solution.

Check out our interview below with Celeste talking about all things MS, CBD and the upcoming 2019 CBD Expo Tour.

1. Please tell us about how you were diagnosed with MS.

About eight years ago, I woke up in the morning and could not feel anything from my waist down. I could move and walk normally but when I would scratch my leg, I couldn’t feel myself doing it. I went into the emergency room and about 16 hours later, I was told that I had MS and had three lesions on my brain and two on my spine.

2. What are some of the difficulties and symptoms that you experienced with MS?

The main symptoms that I experience with MS are muscle spasticity, fatigue and brain fog.

3. What medicines or therapies did you use to treat MS before trying CBD?

I was originally prescribed two medications; one almost gave me a rare brain infection and the other wasn’t strong enough so it caused a bunch of relapses. I was also prescribed a multitude of muscle relaxers to help my muscle spasticity.

4. What brought you to seek out CBD as a cure for your MS?

I hated the feeling of being on muscle relaxers and felt like I couldn’t function while on them. I had a client at the time that was a producer of a CBD gum and he offered to send me some to try out. I would take it at the same time that I would normally have taken a muscle relaxer when I was starting to get spasticity in my legs from the MS. I tried the gum and within 10 minutes, my spacitiy went away, completely.

From there, I started researching CBD and this was as new forms started coming out – gummy bears, oils, and things like that. So I got completely off all the muscle relaxers and to this day, I am only on my monthly infusions of Tysabri and CBD.

It took me a lot of research and time to learn the correct dosage for my body. In the morning, I do a smaller dosage and then in the evening, when I know my spasticity usually gets bad, I’ll take a larger dosage. I’ve got it extremely dialed in and those are the only two things I am currently on; the tysabri and CBD. Hopefully, one day we’ll know that it helps enough in lesion prevention that I can get off the Tysabri but for now I am on both and am thrilled because I am no longer on muscle relaxers.

5. What was your doctors reaction to you taking CBD?

The doctors knew from the beginning how I got off the muscle relaxers but they originally did not say much. About three years ago, my doctor at Stanford called me and told me that they had gotten approved for research on MS and CBD and needed my help to get it off the ground. Within two weeks, we were making a bunch of noise and had money coming in to reach the $150,000 goal. At that point, my doctor called me and told me to stop immediately. When I asked why, she told me that Stanford had just lost one of their biggest financial contributors over this and that she had no choice in the manner. To say the least, for the last three years I have been a patient at Cedars-Sinai. I guess in the end, money talks.

6. Tell us about your background and how your experience with MS & CBD ties into your career in the cannabis industry?

Ironically, it all happened at the same time. I had switched my marketing firm from “mainstream” to cannabis shortly after being diagnosed with MS. They were unrelated, but the timing was close.

7. Tell us why you started CBD Expo?

For me, it is personal and the whole purpose of the CBD Expo Tour is education. There are so many questions surrounding CBD and people are very confused about it. Our main goal is to provide education and also to get exposure to some of the products that we think are the best ones out there.

8. What is CBD Expo?

CBD Expo is not like your normal trade show – we focus on both the medical and education sides of our event. We are not a fly by night company, we are here for the long run. We chose our locations for the 2019 Expo strategically because we want to create a surge of knowledge into these communities. So for example, our next conference that is coming up, CBD Expo Midwest in Indianapolis, was chosen because we saw a large amount of sales coming from Indiana from our first show in the West. We took a poll from our exhibitors and it turned out that 70% of their sales were from Indiana. After finding this out, it only made sense to choose this region as our first destination for our 2019 tour.

9. What are the main highlights for the 2019 CBD Expo Tour?

All of our locations are themed and contain panels and carefully selected presentations to create a well-rounded show and meet the needs of each region.
-CBD Expo Midwest (Indianapolis, IN – March 15-16, 2019) focuses on CBD 101: Basic CBD Knowledge and Industry Trends.
-CBD Expo South (San Antonio, TX – June 28-29, 2019).
-CBD Expo Mountain (Denver, CO – October 11-12, 2019) focuses on compliance, regulation, investments and business.
-Cannabinoid + Natural Products (San Diego, CA – December 5-6) focuses on cannabinoid research and cannabinoid formulations.

We are very excited to for CBD Expo Tour 2019 and would like to encourage anyone who is interested in learning more about CBD from experts in the field or launching their own CBD business to join us. More information on the 2019 CBD Expo Tour can be found at http://cbdexpo.net/.

Check out Flawless CBD for an array of products.

Examining Concussions In Youth Sports

A recent article by Time Magazine cited that children who have been diagnosed with depression are more likely to suffer a concussion while playing youth sports. This correlation flips a common belief that athletes of all ages are more likely to experience symptoms of depression during and after suffering the effects of a concussion.

The article is just the latest in a string of new discoveries regarding brain injuries in American sports. Researchers from across the nation are looking at different angles in order to keep American athletes safer in the future. Consider that Philly.com reported that between 1.1 million and 1.9 million children and teens are treated for concussions caused by organized sports.

These numbers don’t tell the whole story as one of the links between depression and concussions is the fact that students who have suffered from depression are more in tune with their bodies. They are more likely to document the injury and speak up about an issue.

Not reporting a concussion can come from a fear of missing a game, school or after work job. It can also come from simply not understanding what is happening to a person’s body.  Concussion awareness is just as important as the equipment being used in the prevention and proper medical care after a concussion.

The Concussion Legacy Foundation has determined that at least 1 in 5 sports-related concussions are the result of a head impact with the playing field surface. The turf is the common culprit in all sports.

It’s why GreenPlay is helping athletes at all levels become safer through synthetic turfgrass technology. Turfgrass is the term used to describe engineered natural turf on playing fields. Pristine turfgrass is proven to be the benchmark for safety and performance. Compared to synthetic turf, turfgrass has shown to produce exceptional results under impact tests to access head injuries.

Owner of GreenPlay, Domenic Carapella, explains the impact pristine Turfgrass is making for athletes across the country saying, “Turfgrass helps lessen the harsh blows to the head and body that often happen during sports activities at all levels. When it comes to what we can control, the playing surface should be just as important as the equipment being worn.”

According to Greenplay Organics:

  • It’s important to discuss the issue of concussions in American youth sports in order to help drive change for the children of our country.
  • Pristine Turfgrass is the benchmark for the safest, high-performance playing surface.
  • Turfgrass is firm to run on, provides ideal traction and is resilient under bodily and head impacts.

Winter Season × Headaches

Many can agree that the winter season can be a headache – from shoveling snow, bearing the freezing temperatures, de-icing the car – the list goes on. However, what many don’t realize is that the chilly weather can be physically giving you a headache (all thanks to changes in barometric pressure).

With migraines being the 3rd most prevalent illness in the world, it’s important that people understand their triggers and know that weather is one of the top causes of migraines.

Dr. Susan Hutchinson is a practicing migraine physician and medical advisor at MigraineX, who can discuss:

• ‘Tis the Season for Migraines – Are ‘Winter Headaches’ Really a Thing?

• How to Know If Weather Might Be Your Migraine Trigger

• Solutions for Weather-Related Migraines

• More

About Dr. Susan Hutchinson

Dr. Susan Hutchinson is a headache specialist and board-certified family practice physician. In February 2007, she founded Orange County Migraine & Headache Center, dedicated to serving patients with headache and mood disorders.

Prior to starting Orange County Migraine & Headache Center, Dr. Hutchinson practiced as a family practice physician in the Irvine Area since 1985. Over the years, she developed a passion for helping patients with headache, especially migraine. Dr. Hutchinson suffers from migraine headaches which gives her an empathy with her patients. She felt such a calling to help patients with headache and mood disorders that she decided to specialize and devote her career to alleviating the suffering caused by both headaches and mood disorders..

She lectures nationally on the subject of headache; has written dozens of articles for medical journals; participated in headache research projects and is very active in numerous professional organizations such as the American Headache Society and the National Headache Foundation. She is the immediate post-chair of the Women’s Issues section of the American Headache Society after serving in the chair position for 5 years. Dr. Hutchinson is a dynamic and sought-after speaker.